1 Tools required
To prepare for laying the tiles you will need:
To lay the tiles you will need:
The choice of the “right” glue is significantly affected by the type of surface on which the tile will be laid in the future:
|Mineral (cement, cement-lime, lime, gypsum plaster, concrete). Plasterboard slabs. Old frosting. Wooden or from wood materials. (Particleboard, wood boards, boards).||Elastic fast-binding adhesive + primer emulsion. Glue of increased elasticity or dispersion glue + primer emulsion. Adhesive with increased elasticity and adhesion. Dispersion glue.|
3 Materials required
The primer is the basis of the finishing work. The primer emulsion is applied to the prepared base with a brush or roller before applying a leveling mortar or glue. Penetrating into the porous surface, it strengthens it, creates a protective layer between the base and the adhesive, improves the adhesion of the tiles and the base.
They are added to the adhesive in order to improve the adhesion, elasticity and waterproofness of the adhesive. Facilitate leveling of the base.
Two main types are produced: thin and thick. The former are used on smoothly plastered walls; with the latter, tiles can even be glued on uneven surfaces.
Allows you to fill in damage and level the surface of the wall.
Grout for joints
Fills the seams between the tiles, increasing the aesthetic and user qualities of the tiles.
4 Foundation preparation
Tiles are always laid on a dry, even, clean, fat-free, dust-free base.
|If the base is porous, it is necessary to use a primer emulsion that improves adhesion.|
|To eliminate irregularities, it is necessary to use a putty mixture.|
|Very smooth substrates must be roughened by striking in some places with a sharp tool or walking along the surface with a grinder. Then apply a coat of primer emulsion.|
5 Tile positioning
|Using a measuring cord and level, draw a line parallel to the floor at a distance equal to the height of one tile and seam.|
|Attach a bar under the horizontal line for a while. She will support the first row of tiles.|
6 Laying tiles
Apply glue with a spatula to a surface of approximately 1 m2.
Then stretch it with a notched trowel so that horizontal furrows remain.
Install distance crosses between the tiles so that the seams separating them are the same width.
Remove excess glue between the tiles as they are laid.
Apply another portion of glue and continue work.
Finish the work by laying the bottom row of tiles, before that, remove the horizontal bar first. Remote crosses must be removed before the glue dries.
|After the adhesive composition has completely dried with a rubber spatula, it is necessary to fill the joints with a fugue of the selected color (grout). Distribute the solution in different directions so as to fill all the gaps.|
Before the mortar hardens, it should be wiped off the surface of the tiles with a damp sponge. In order to foil the seams, just wipe them with a sponge.
TIP: If the glazed tile is laid in damp rooms, an improving additive should be added to the jointing solution. This will avoid cracks in the joints after drying the grout.
Simple cutting of tiles is carried out using a special device - a tile cutter.
Stick on adhesive tape to the place to be cut so as not to scratch the surface. Drill holes in the tile on the border of the marked circle with a suitable drill (pobeditovy or tungsten). Then, with ceramic tongs, carefully break out the unnecessary part of the tile.
To cut and grind uneven edges.
To cut the corners of the tile in order to fit the tiles to sockets or switches, use a wet saw. Such a saw has a diamond blade that cuts in cold water and a guide that provides direct cutting. In order to close the joints between the bathroom and the wall, you should use a special profile, silicone sealant or silicone tape for sealing.
9 Additional Tips
When buying, you should make sure that all tiles from the same batch, that is, have the same caliber and color shade (identical to the code in accordance with the parameters indicated on the package).
When laying, tiles should be taken from different packages in order to avoid color difference.
The color of the fugue may match the shade of the color of the tile or be in contrast with it. You can also mix the grout with the right pigment before adding water.
The tile should be cleaned with water with the addition of a non-greasy chemical substance that does not cause abrasion of its surface. After processing, wash the tile with clean water.
When laying tiles, sanitary units should be protected from glue and mortar.
10 Patterned tiles, decorative elements
Tiles with a pattern and decorative elements make the walls lined with ceramic tiles more interesting and attractive. Tile decor is often used as a separate insert. With proper placement, you can achieve a wonderful visual effect. Often, manufacturers create decors from several elements, from which you can lay out a whole panel or mosaic.
Incorrectly selected tiles
When shopping for tiles, people are more often guided by two factors that influence the final choice - design and pricing. But having decided on a purchase, they do not check the tiles for identity. This is a gross mistake that can result in uneven joints between the tiles, tiles of different sizes and shades. Before buying, you must verify the size of the tile. It is better to take several tiles of the same batch from different boxes and compare them with each other. Ceramic material should be the same along the perimeter, the height of the product.
Before you start tiling, the surface must be prepared.
Wall / floor is cleaned to the ground.
The most important thing is to smooth out irregularities on the floor with screed and on the walls with plaster or drywall. Alignment is necessarily done on the beacons to get a perfectly flat plane.
It is highly advisable to reinforce the plaster with a metal mesh, especially if its layer is thick. It is attached to the wall with dowels or nails.
We fasten the metal mesh for reinforcing the plaster
Briefly explain why the technology of wall cladding with ceramic tiles requires the mandatory alignment of the base:
The glue always shrinks during drying. If the glue layer is uneven, one end of the tile will harden before the other, and when the second begins to harden, it will create internal stress on the tile during shrinkage. As a result, the risk of cracks or tearing of the tile from the slightest load increases, especially if somewhere in the center there is a tubercle on the base.
Before and after plastering, the surface must be treated with a deep penetration primer to remove dust and increase adhesion.
Preparation for laying ceramic tiles on the wall
To lay the tiles on the wall as quickly as possible, and the finished coating as long as possible retain their original characteristics, you need to properly prepare the work surface and everything necessary for laying. First of all, assemble the tools and necessary materials with which to do the laying of the cladding on the wall with your own hands:
When laying tiles, you need to use crosses that help maintain the same distance between them.
- tile cutter
- plastic crosses
- diamond drill,
- rubber mallet
- coarse grit primer
- tile adhesive
- grout for joints.
Before you start laying ceramic tiles on the wall, you need to level and clean the work surface from contamination. For leveling surfaces, you can use plaster or gypsum-fiber moisture-resistant sheets. If you are on a budget, use the first method.
Before laying the tiles on the wall, you need to remove the old finish.
Before laying the tiles from the walls, you need to remove the old coating.
So, if the wall has been painted, take a small hatchet, apply a lot of notches to the surface and remove the paint. After this, treat the work surface with a coarse-grained primer. Thanks to this, the adhesion of the tile to the wall will be improved.
In the event that the walls were finished with ceramic tiles, it should be dismantled, because you will not succeed in laying a new tile on top of the old one - the glue simply does not stick to the existing smooth coating. Free surface from exfoliated plaster and paint. Remove roughness with plaster.
First, you need to lay out a test layout without glue and decide on the order and sequence of installation.
We check the tiles for size, defects, sort.
We do the laying according to the prepared layout or sketch.
The tile adheres to cement glue.
To preserve uniform seams immediately after installation, plastic crosses or wedges are inserted into them. Also, to get a professional result, you can use the tile alignment system, about which there is a separate article.
Using a tile alignment system
There are many tools with which you can cut and drill tiles: glass cutter, manual and electric tile cutter, grinder with a diamond disk, diamond crowns and ballerinas. Read more about this in the lessons about cutting and drilling.
External corners can be joined by sawing them at 45 degrees using a grinder or an electric machine. In hazardous areas where you can slip - it is better to use special plastic or aluminum corners - layouts.
Tools for preparatory work:
- Hammer (for removing tiles),
- Sponge (for removing wallpaper),
- Nozzle - whisk,
- Glue container
- Adhesive mixture
In order to start the main stage of work, you should take care of the intermediate, preparatory matters, which are also included in the technology of laying ceramic tiles on the wall.
To do this, you must first remove all the old finishes, whether it be wallpapers, panels, old tiles.
As for tiles: be sure to remove all the trim from the wall! There are tips on the net that say that you can beat off the top cover, and then the technology of laying the tiles on the wall will not be violated, however, this recommendation is relevant ONLY for the floor.
Next - carefully check the walls for evenness, the usual level can help you with this, applying it, you can easily determine the differences.
When mounting, be sure to use crosses
What needs to be determined is the magnitude of precisely these shortcomings. If they are more than 1 cm, then you should do the alignment of the walls, because otherwise, the adjustment due to a larger overlay of the mixture.
So, if the wall is more or less even, you need to prime it. These actions, in principle, are not mandatory, but are nevertheless recommended, since as a result you will improve adhesion between the mortar and the wall, which will automatically increase the quality of the masonry.
While the primed wall is drying up, you can attach the beam to the wall, since the technology of laying tiles on the wall is repelled mainly not from the floor line, which can be uneven, but from the beam, which, of course, is installed at the second level from the bottom of the tile.
Now that the preparatory work included in the technology of laying ceramic tiles on the wall is finished, we can knead the glue mixture.
The best thing, of course, is to use a special nozzle - a mixer, because manually mixing the mixture all the same will not work.
Application of water-repellent impregnation on the seams
The opposite is epoxy grout - it can withstand even the effects of an aggressive environment, acids, does not lose color over time and does not get dirty, is not afraid of moisture. But it is much more difficult to work with it, the seams are formed with an still mixture, to remove plaque you need to buy a special tool.
Expansion or flexible joints (for example, between the wall and the bathroom) are sealed with silicone grout sealant.
Tiling in practice
The technology of laying tiles on the wall and floor will be shown in two examples:
- Combined bathroom (bathroom + toilet), wall and floor cladding with a total area of 20 square meters.
- Kitchen, wall and floor covering with a total area of 45 square meters.
At first glance, it may seem that the lining of a small bathroom will take a little time, but in fact it is not.
Laying in the bathroom
- We remove the old tiles, plaster and paint in the bathroom.
- With a steel brush and a scraper, we clean the walls and floor to the concrete base.
- We remove construction debris and dust.
- Grounding the walls.
- We fix the mesh for reinforcement on the walls and floor.
All this work takes 2 days from one master.
The wall is heavily littered, therefore, preliminary plastering on the lighthouses is required
- We set the beacons on the laser level or plumb.
- Fill the screed and plaster the walls along the lighthouses. Display all angles at 90 degrees.
- We ground the surface ready for laying.
- Temporarily cover the screed with polyethylene.
The master will take 6 days to complete high-quality plastering on the lighthouses.
Before starting work, we lay out the tile and select the laying sequence. Typically, styling starts from the most prominent place.
It takes from 6 to 10 working days to clad walls, floors, neatly dock, trim and drill, cut corners at 45 degrees. Timing depends on the complexity of the work: the amount of trim, the device shelves, niches, bathroom lining.
It takes 2-3 days to grout the joints and be treated with a water repellent.
Total, if the technology of laying ceramic tiles is followed, the bathroom takes 20 square meters takes 17 working days:
- Preparation 7-8 days,
- Lining and grouting - 10 days.
In this case, the walls are already prepared - they are aligned with drywall for glue.
- Grounding the walls. The primer dries for at least 3 hours.
- We lay out the tiles according to the sketch and proceed to the wall lining in the kitchen. We stack everything except the bottom row.
Laying tiles on drywall in the kitchen
We lay tiles in the kitchen diagonally
When the floor is ready, lay the last row on the walls
This work will take 10-15 days for laying and 2-3 days for grouting with water-repellent coating. In total, the lining of 45 squares will take about 17 working days, as in the example with the bathroom, but the walls and floor here were already smooth.
- Layout options in the bathroom: popular methods of laying on the floor and walls
- How to lay the tiles correctly on the floor: practical workshop
- Features of laying tiles on drywall walls: step by step instructions
Materials and tools for laying tiles on the wall
The main success of the quality of laying tiles is the availability of high-quality and modern materials, as well as tools. Naturally, each person knows that everything depends on many factors that affect the repair and construction work. To perform tile laying, you must purchase the following tools:
· Level and chisel.
· Capacity for glue and a mixer with a broom, which will help when mixing the composition.
· Trowel and putty knife.
· Tile and hammer.
It is also worth having the following materials:
· Primer and plaster, but can be replaced with putty mixture.
· Glue for tile and joint.
Preparation of the selected surface for the tile laying process
Every builder and ordinary person knows that first you must carefully and according to the rules to prepare the selected surface. Surface preparation consists of the following steps:
· Removing old trim.
Most often, it is difficult to get rid of the old material, because it perfectly stuck to the surface and was deeply absorbed. Field surface preparation, it is worth paying attention to the following:
· The presence of cracks, fungus, mold, and the like.
· Disadvantages that relate to wall irregularities.
Cracks can be repaired with a deep penetration primer, and all should be repaired with plaster. Fungus and mold are the most common problems, so they should be treated with a special chemical agent. After that, it is worth drying the wall, and treating everything with a primer while adding antiseptic components. Irregularities can be removed with a primer or plaster.
The process of laying tiles on a selected and prepared surface
The technology of laying tiles is quite simple, but there are some points that should be given special attention. To lay the tiles on the wall, you must perform the following steps:
· Apply the mixture to the wall and level everything with a spatula.
· Take the tile and attach it to the wall while slightly pressing down.
· It is necessary to perform the laying of one row and check whether everything is correct with the level.
· To ensure that there are even seams between the tiles, you should use crosses, but do not forget them after gluing the tiles.
· When the tile sticks out, then you need to knock with a rubber hammer, and it will go deeper into the glue.
After laying several layers of tiles, it is worth giving time to dry it. It is also necessary to check the evenness of the row with the building level.
After laying the tiles, it is worth doing rubbing the seams. It is necessary to process the seams with a fugue, but most often it is called grout. The procedure is equipped with the following advantages:
· Protects seams from moisture.
· Can emphasize the beauty of the laid tiles.
Today, there are many grouts that are equipped with different colors. To grout was successful, you must do everything according to the following instructions:
· No need to breed the whole package of purchased grout.
· To perform this process, you must purchase a quality spatula.
The technology of laying tiles is available for every person, but if you know all the subtleties and rules, since this is the main component of successful work. In the modern world, people have a desire to understand such a process so as not to hire specialists while paying crazy money. You need to seriously approach the laying of ceramic tiles in order to prevent mistakes that can cause problems and unpleasant moments in the future.
Determining the location of rows of ceramic tiles
Before laying the tiles on the wall, determine the location of the horizontal and vertical rows of tiles. This stage of work is very important. Thanks to him, you can reduce the number of clippings to a minimum. The calculation of horizontal rows is performed from top to bottom. In this case, it is necessary to consider the seams between the tiles. As a rule, they are about 2 mm. This calculation can be completed only after there is free space below that would be enough to lay a whole ceramic tile. Here the 2nd row will begin.
Laying schemes for ceramic tiles.
The first row, as a rule, is laid out from the scraps of tile. There are two main reasons for this. Firstly, the floors are usually not perfectly flat. Secondly, at the bottom of the cropped tile will be less evident than at the top.
The vertical rows of tiles are calculated in the same way as the horizontal ones. Counting whole ceramic tiles can be done from any angle, while taking into account a seam of 3 mm. If at the end of the row you see that the whole tile will not fit there, move the entire row so that the tiles of the same size are laid on both sides. Due to this, the symmetry of the installation will be achieved.
If the symmetry of laying ceramic tiles does not matter to you, do the following: lay the whole tile on one side and the trimmed one on the other. However, it is better to try to ensure symmetry, such a coating looks more beautiful.
After the optimal arrangement of rows is selected, the most interesting stage of work begins - laying ceramic tiles.
Mounting tiles on the wall
To lay the tiles on the walls, you need to prepare the following tools:
- Master OK,
- Notched trowel,
- Rubber mallet,
- The tile itself
- Plastic stops - crosses.
Competent technology for laying ceramic tiles on the wall involves applying the mixture to the wall, and not to the tile.
It is allowed to collect glue on the tile only if the wall has irregularities that you can fix at the expense of a larger amount of the mixture.
So, we put the mixture on the wall (on a part, about two rows of tiles, of course, you should not cover the entire surface), leveled it with a notched trowel and grasp the tile.
They put it to the wall, pressed it. However, try to do it without undue enthusiasm, you should not put too much pressure.
The correct technology for laying tiles on the wall implies the constant use of the level for proofreading the installation of the tile itself. To do this, as soon as you lay the tiles on the wall, pick up the above tool and check the resulting surface for horizontalness. If the edge protrudes, you need to gently hit it with a rubber mallet, but if the tile is “sunk”, you need to dismantle it and shift it again.
So, moving behind the tile, you lay out 2-3 rows. Now stop and take a break. It is needed in order to allow time for the mortar to set, because otherwise laying the tile on the wall may simply not withstand the pressure of the upper rows and collapse.
To adjust the thickness of the seams, be sure to use special regulators when laying ceramic tiles, only then the seams will be even and equal.
While you are waiting for the mortar setting time indicated on the packaging using the technology of laying ceramic tiles on the wall, it makes sense to cut the tiles.
Step-by-step instructions for laying ceramic tiles on the wall
First of all, take a profile and fix it in those places where ceramic tiles will be laid. He will support the second row of tiles. For fastening profiles, use dowels 6x60 or 6x40. Check the horizontal profile using the building level. Align if necessary. After all the profiles are installed in their place, proceed with the preparation of tile glue. In this case, follow the manufacturer's instructions.
The scheme of actions when laying ceramic tiles.
Instead of tile glue, you can take an ordinary cement-sand mortar. If you decide to do just that, then before working, be sure to soak the tile in water. Such processing is very important because thanks to it, the tile will not absorb moisture from the solution. When using glue for a tile the tile is not soaked.
Apply a layer of the finished mixture to the wall with a notched trowel. No need to simultaneously apply glue for more than 3-4 ceramic tiles. First of all, the starting supporting row of tiles is laid.
In case you want to observe symmetry, laying of a row needs to be begun with the whole tile, and only then to install trimmings. If symmetry does not matter to you, start installing the tile from the corner of the wall.
During the installation of ceramic tiles, you need to constantly check the vertical and horizontal tiles using the building level. To ensure the same width of the seams, crosses should be inserted between the tiles. However, be sure to remove them before the glue mixture dries.
Glue the support row and check it with the building level. To do this, take a long level, turn it over to the edge and lay to the surface of the coating. There should be no gaps between the level edge and the tiles. In case of their presence, the protruding parts of the tile must be carefully knocked out with a rubber mallet.
Glue the next row of ceramic tiles in the same way. Do not forget to insert crosses. Check the vertical and horizontal of this row. Make sure all tiles are in the same plane.
Continuing to work on the same technology, get to the ceiling. If you do not have time to complete all the work in one day, then before completing the work, remove excess adhesive from the wall and remove the crosses. If there are pipes, sockets and other obstacles on the wall, you will need to cut the corresponding holes in the tile using a tubular drill or a diamond crown. Lastly, the bottom row is stacked. Cut the tile to the required size.
In the process, you can detect various typical defects. So, if some kind of tile stands out against the background of the neighboring ones, it must be tapped with a rubber mallet. If the tile is "drowning", it must be removed and put more glue mixture.
If during the laying of ceramic tiles you see that the seams do not fit together, correct this defect with a grout. It allows you to correct deviations up to 1-2 mm. If the deviations exceed these values, you will have to shift the tile.
One of the most serious drawbacks is the presence of voids under the tiles. It is better to immediately remove such a tile and fill the voids with glue mixture, otherwise after a while the tile will disappear.
The final step is grouting. In addition to performing a decorative function, it provides additional tightness. So with its help you can not only improve the appearance of the cladding, but also protect the tile joints from the ingress of water.
Carefully read the instructions and prepare the mixture. Grout can be latex and water. The specific composition is selected depending on which room is facing. Take a rubber spatula and press the grout into the seams. To remove excess grout, you can use a hard spatula-squeegee.
Smooth the seams with a suitable tool. For example, a piece of cable of round cross-section or a handle of a toothbrush is perfect for this. Remove excess glue from the joints of the floor and wall and seal the joints with silicone sealant. Do not forget to do this, as otherwise the grout will deteriorate after a short time.
Wait until the grout has dried and cover the tile with a special polish. On this, the lining is considered complete. Good luck in laying tiles on the wall with your own hands!
Tile cutting at home
Ceramic tiles can be cut using several tools:
- Manual tile cutter,
- Electric tile cutter,
- Glass cutter
The best option for you is a manual tile cutter. An electrical analogue is by no means worse, even better, but its cost is one level higher.
Glass cutters and wire cutters are also a good choice, however, unfortunately, not every tile lends itself to glass cutting now, as the quality of the material is sometimes much better than you expect.
But the Bulgarian is a rather complicated tool, and even a dangerous one, which is why it is undesirable for you to contact it if you do not know how to use it.
It is recommended to engage in the cutting of tiles for walls and the floor during the laying of ceramic tiles, as often masters do not take into account that there will be seams when laying, and as a result, the tiles have to be cut, and it will be much more difficult to carefully cut the tiles into a small segment, believe me .
The final stage, which is part of the technology of laying tiles on the wall, is grouting.
Tile technology: where to start
The technology for laying tiles includes several processes, the first of which is the horizontal and vertical layout.
- In the first option, take a level and use it to find the lowest point of the selected wall.
- Next, you need to make a mark at the height of one element.
- Before mounting the tiles on the wall, draw a horizontal line on all surfaces along this point, using the level.
- From the bottom mark, outline the location of the next horizontal. The second row is laid from it. According to the technology of laying tiles with his own hands, he is the first to do it.
Advice! According to technology, how to tile on the wall correctly, it is required to nail a bar of wood or metal along the bottom line. It serves as an obstacle to the sliding of elements.
To create vertical layout:
- use the tape measure to find the center of the wall,
- from this point on both sides we put a tile and determine whether it fits right up to the mark, or the final elements require trimming,
- if the second option is obtained, then the central mark must be moved to the left so that the part fits completely on this side,
- draw a vertical strip along the new central mark using the level
- so all four surfaces are marked before laying the tiles on the walls.
The classic layout is suitable for beginners, and for professionals, the creation of original patterns is available. When calculating, do not forget to leave a distance to the seam.
Buying Glazed Pottery
The bathroom is a place where there should be increased security. Coming out after a shower, a person should not slide on the floor, as on an ice rink. Therefore, glazed tiles will not work, it is worth buying non-glazed material. Safety should be above all, because falling onto a ceramic floor can result in serious personal injury.
Choose a tile for laying in the bathroom
Facing walls with ceramic tiles is often used in rooms where moisture-resistant material is needed. When choosing a tile for a bathroom, you need to pay attention to several criteria, including packaging, since it contains a brief description of the product. A sign in the shape of a hand and foot indicates the purpose of the product - for walls or floors. A dash indicates wear resistance, a snowflake indicates frost resistance. The number of stars will “tell” about the quality of the material - the higher the number, the better the thickness of the ceramic tile and other parameters.
There are three classes of tiles on the Internet and construction stores:
- the first is for the technology of laying ceramic tiles on the bathroom wall,
- 2 - for country cottages,
- 3 - for the floor of residential facilities.
In addition to various colors, the surface type is different - matte or glossy. You can also order any drawings. Since gluing tiles to the wall without a special education, this is a plus of the product. It also has the following characteristics:
- resistance to pollution,
- ease of care
- durability, etc.
Choosing the wrong tile mix
Laying tiles on the bathroom floor requires the correct selection of mixtures for fixing the tiles. With the current choice of material, the need for a cement mortar for laying has disappeared, manufacturers offer good mixes that will facilitate the process of laying tiles on the floor. For the bathroom and toilet, they buy a primer, glue and grout exclusively for flooring. The base of the bathroom and the bathroom is constantly subjected to heavy loads, therefore it is necessary to lay the tiles on glue with increased fixation.
Particular attention is paid to the preparation of the mixture. You can not deviate from the instructions on the packaging of the mixture, the proportions must be strictly observed when preparing the adhesive emulsion
To do this, you need to carefully study all the tips of the manufacturers. The glue should be uniform, without lumps.
The preparation of the walls should be treated carefully, since the whole procedure and the further service life depend on it. The surface should be flat, without differences, so that the process is as simple as possible. In the presence of irregularities, they will have to be regulated by the amount of adhesive applied. Preparatory work includes:
- measuring the total area for calculating the consumption of building materials,
- determination of the degree of deviation of the walls,
- knock strength testing to calculate poorly held layers that need to be removed,
- cleansing of grease, stains, residues of paint, glue, tile and wallpaper,
Preparation of the foundation for laying the tiles begins on a dry surface.
- To level concrete, stone and brick walls, cement mortar treatment is required.
- A layer of roofing material, a metal mesh is superimposed on the tree, and plaster on top.
- Drywall surface preparation consists of pasting with a plastic mesh.
- Plaster is required to be incised with a chisel to improve grip. If not, use an ax.
Poorly prepared base.
How to lay tiles if the original base is uneven? Many are trying to solve the problem with a lot of glue. This is a fatal mistake that guarantees a curved floor with height differences. The fact is that leveling the surface by laying tiles with a large amount of glue will entail landslides of the glue base and the probability that the tile simply “floats” reaches almost 100%.
Therefore, before laying, you need to pay attention to leveling the surface. Correctly lay the tile on the floor in the bathroom can only be on a well-prepared plane
Tile cutting technology
Before gluing the tiles to the wall, you need to cut the missing elements using a tile cutter. This is often required at corners, or when creating holes for drain pipes.
- For cutting ceramic tiles, the product is scratched with a tool. To get an even result, use a ruler.
- Then they put it on the edge of the table so that it coincides with the outlined line. Glazed surface at the top.
- By clicking on the tile from two sides, you break it along the cut.
If you need to cut tiles of irregular shape, then first you need to mark with a felt-tip pen. Excess pieces are broken off with forceps. Next, the edge is processed with a grindstone. This is done in any case, regardless of the thickness of the tiles on the wall.
Round cutouts for pipes are made with a drill. To do this, stick masking tape on which the drilling site is marked. In the process, gradually increase the size of the drill to the desired end result.
To get a round cutout, the marking is carried out as follows:
- lean the required size of the ceramic tile for the walls (take into account the thickness and other parameters in advance) on one side of the pipe, then below or above it,
- transfer to the part a marking corresponding to the level of the sides, top and bottom of the pipes,
- then draw the lines at right angles to the edges of the tile,
- in the middle of the resulting rectangle, outline a circle with a size equal to the diameter of the pipe.
Another method for creating a circular cutout is to cut the tiles in half. The cut should pass in the center of the circle, so that in the future the pipe hides the resulting joint. This is done both vertically and horizontally. After cutting the part, make a semicircle of the required size on each half.
Trying to lay the tiles without careful measurements - this means finding all the work to fail. It is impossible to lay an evenly tiled floor without a corner, a rubber mallet and a water, or better laser level.
The laid row of tiles must be checked with the help of a level; defects can be leveled with a rubber mallet. Why a rubber mallet, not an ordinary one? The ceramic coating can simply burst or chip when using an ordinary hammer, so the rubber hammer should always be at hand.
Tile alignment with a rubber mallet
Glue ceramic: process features
Before laying the tile on the wall, mark the beginning. If there is an external corner in the room, then start from it, moving to the internal one. If all corners are internal, then do-it-yourself tile laying should start from a vertically located central mark.
Glue ceramic tiles to the wall from bottom to top. In the process, use a notched trowel, which you want to keep at an angle of 30-45 °,
- Apply Litokol tile adhesive to the square of the surface. You can choose another manufacturer.
- Glue the tile immediately, while pressing on it. You can also tap with a rubber mallet. While the adhesive mixture has not dried, move the product to the sides, aligning in a perfect row.
Advice! If it is not possible to apply Tile glue Eunice (or any other) directly on the walls, then it is allowed to cover the tiles with it. Some technologies describe the coating of each surface.
- While sticking the tiles on the wall, separate the elements with crosses, placing them on the side of the part, or at the intersection of the four elements at once.
- The level you need to check the alignment of products in the horizontal and vertical directions.
- After correctly gluing the tile on the wall it turned out on the whole row, remove the remains of the adhesive from the seams until it has time to harden. Then it will be problematic to do.
- Wait a day until the pottery dries.
- Then remove the bar.
- Now lay the cut parts.
- At the end is the bottom row. Before gluing, tile is installed on the floor. Try on each piece before work, cutting it if necessary.
Basics of laying tiles in the bathroom
In order for the tile to last as long as possible, it is necessary to follow a certain procedure for laying tiles in the bathroom. Tiles are easier to lay on the floor. Therefore, if there is little experience, it is best to start with the floor.
If laying parallel to the walls is planned, then it is better to start from the visible angle for more decorative qualities of the finished surface. Diagonal laying is usually done from the middle of the room
Particular attention should be paid to inter-tile seams, since the decorative properties of the surface depend on their size.
The regulation of the size of the seams is carried out using plastic crosses. It must be ensured that no air forms under the tile, which can lead to destruction of the material. Be sure to check the level. Trimming tiles using a tile cutter or grinder.
Consider the sequence of laying tiles in the bathroom on the wall. Here the situation is more complicated, since you have to work on a vertical surface. In this case, there are also certain rules for laying tiles in the bathroom.
First, you need to start laying from a visible angle. Secondly, laying is carried out from the profile nailed to the wall and horizontally aligned. Its fastening is carried out at such a height from the floor that only whole tiles are laid out under the ceiling.
After the glue dries, the bottom row is reported. To apply glue here, you can use a notched trowel, which will allow you to adjust the layer. Too much adhesive may cause the tile to slip or fall off.
Sometimes you have to make slopes from tiles in the bathroom, for example, for niches for sewer pipes. In this case, you should come up with spacers, since when gluing tiles on the upper slope, it can fall away. For decorating joints, external and internal corners for tiles in the bathroom are used.
The final step is grouting with a mixture of the appropriate color. The excess mixture is removed with a sponge, and then wiped clean all the tiles.
Thus, it is clear that the technology of laying tiles in the bathroom is quite complicated. But with a certain amount of zeal, it is completely feasible on their own
It is very important to strictly follow the installation rules and use only high-quality building materials.
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Facing the walls with tiles ends with grouting according to the following technology.
- Remove exposed glue. You may need a knife and thinner to do this.
- Knead the Mapei grout (or any other one) as per the manufacturer's instructions. Most often, white is chosen, but you can get brighter for contrast.
- Next, put it on the seams with a spatula after laying the tiles on the wall.
- Carefully clean the place. Remove the mixture with a damp sponge.
- Remove excess cement grout using a rubber eraser.
- Wait for the composition to dry and polish the area with a dry rag.
Attention! Between the bathroom and the wall where the tiles were laid, the space is not filled with grout, but with sealant.
How to choose the optimal layout
Before choosing a tile, it is worth drawing a sketch by hand to determine the type of cladding. To do this, draw a detailed floor plan with all sizes and furnishings:
- carefully measure the floor and walls, openings, indicate the parameters on paper,
- make up a drawing of the bathroom and necessarily display the location of the doorway, windows (if any), all niches and ledges,
- indicate the location of plumbing fixtures, sockets, switches, piping outlets.
Now that the plan is ready, you can choose the optimal layout scheme using sketching with colored pencils. Such a sketch will help determine the best arrangement of decorative elements, places of cutting tiles, problem areas. Be sure to consider the degree of complexity of the work, if you plan to independently engage in facing.
The list of tools and materials
Laying tiles at the professional level is available with the following tool. It can be purchased at any building materials store. It is necessary to have all the components, since laying tiles on the walls is not possible in the absence of any of them.
- The glue to be selected based on the characteristics of the coating and the purpose of the room.
- Hammer with a nozzle for mixing the composition.
- The capacity for this procedure is 10-15 liters.
- Notched trowel or steel grater for applying adhesive. You may need a trowel for hard to reach places.
- Grout and sealant.
- Tile cutter or roller glass cutter.
- Pencil or chalk.
- Plaster and putty.
- Trims to create a corner.
- Crosses with a width of 1.5-2 mm for the separation of tiles.
- Hacksaw for ceramics.
- Ruler and tape measure.
- Primer, primer to increase the adhesive properties of the coating and provide better adhesion.
- Long profile or wooden lath.
- Nails and dowels for attaching them.
- Tong tongs.
- Sharpening stone for processing the sharp edges of cut ceramic tiles of any thickness.
- Rubber spatula or grater for joints.
- Masking tape.
- Drill for pipes.
- the most complex and time-consuming.
This method has several advantages:
- visually expands the area
- if there are mistakes in the layout and the walls are non-perpendicular or non-parallel, this disadvantage is hidden,
- gives a beautiful and original drawing.
- even slight deviations in tile sizes are not allowed,
- more waste.
In the “diagonal” method, the first row begins to be laid with cut tiles diagonally, which increases the percentage of waste.
Tile joints are perpendicular to each other and at an angle of 45 degrees to the walls. Checking the accuracy of laying tiles in the bathroom is the level and square.
The following options for laying tiles in the bathroom are a two-tone combination of already known methods.
What is the difference between laying tiles on the floor
You can lay tiles on the wall and floor in the same room, for example, a bathroom or kitchen. This is done practically using the same technology. The surface is also prepared, primed, marked. Work begins from the far wall to the exit. We actively use the level, smooth surface with the amount of glue applied. At the end of the work - finishing the seams.
These methods of laying tiles are do-it-yourselfers, if you have the required knowledge, skills and tools. If you adhere to the right technology, then the product will delight you with its beautiful view for more than a dozen years of operation.
Ceramic tile laying methods advantages and disadvantages
Laying of tiles in the bathroom is carried out according to various schemes, each of which can emphasize the advantages of ceramic coating and will allow you to use the features of the room geometry with maximum benefit. Below are the most popular styling models with an assessment of their practicality.
The most simple to implement and cost effective. Laying tiles is made in even stripes located in parallel with the plane of the floor and walls. Both square and rectangular tiles will do. The second option, depending on the location, can contribute to a visual increase in space.
This procedure for laying tiles in the bathroom is often used among beginners in this field.
This laying pattern is similar to installing brickwork, when the tiles are staggered with a shift of the next rows relative to the previous ones by 1/2 length. This option looks especially advantageous when laying tiles in the form of a rectangle, the sides of which are in a ratio of 2 to 1.The advantages are similar to the direct layout method, with the difference that there will be more waste.
Stacking is ideal for a rectangular tile called a “boar”, as the result is a surface that simulates real brickwork.
This laying method is characterized by the location of the fragments at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the line between the floor and the walls. This technique looks very impressive, especially on large-scale surfaces, but is more difficult to work with. Before the eyes there is an expanded panorama with the intersection of lines diagonally. For limited space, this method is not suitable, since it will optically reduce the area of the room. Among the shortcomings can be noted the increased complexity of the work and significant labor costs associated with the need to trim tiles. Diagonal stacking is associated with a large level of waste, and therefore is quite expensive.
Work on diagonal laying will require an employee to have a sufficient level of skill. For beginner finishers, such a scheme can be too complicated.
The modular scheme was invented to create an unusual styling. The drawings, which are distinguished by originality and modern design, can be obtained through the use of tiles of different sizes, but with multiple edges. The main difficulty lies in the correct calculation of the required amount of finishing material. To this end, a schematic layout plan for layout on a scale is created. Be sure to consider the level of thickness of the seams.
The modular scheme is in many respects similar to the method of laying apart, but the calculations for its creation should be as accurate as possible.
How to tile in the bathroom
To properly lay the tiles, you will need to follow a number of recommendations:
- It is necessary to start laying tiles on the wall from the second row, the countdown is from the floor. The first row of tiles at the initial stage remains empty, during installation it is worth focusing on the markup.
- The glue is applied to the base, not to the tile. For convenience, use a notched trowel, it will create the desired texture.
- Do not put too much pressure on the tile during installation, if you overdo it, the ceramics may not withstand and crack or break.
- Excess glue is removed with a foam sponge.
- To the seams between the tiles in the bathroom were the same in width, use special crosses. The optimal width is a few millimeters.
- Check each new row for horizontalness. Even the slightest deviation can later lead to masonry distortions. This can happen due to slightly different tile sizes, which periodically happens with domestic ceramics.
- When facing corners and ledges in the bathroom, you will need to trim the tiles using a grinder or tile cutter.
- If you need to make the recesses, you can simply gently break them with pliers until you get a hole of the required size.
You can learn more about how to lay tiles on the walls of the bathroom with your own hands in the training video.
Having figured out how to properly lay the tiles in the bathroom, you can proceed to consider the next most important stage - grouting tile joints. How to process ceramic products yourself? You need to start the grouting process in a day after laying the last tile.
Sponge removes glue from the tile. The grout is prepared in accordance with the instructions. Apply it inside the seams with a rubber spatula. The inter-tile solution solidifies within half an hour. Then it is wiped with a damp sponge.
In order to avoid the formation of mold and fungus in the future, the finished seams are treated with a special mixture. Wide seams are rubbed with a mixture of sand, in which latex is recommended. Latex will protect the joints from cracking, eliminating the need to replace tiles. It also performs a decorative function in the bathroom, the design of which will become unique.
The use of latex does not require dilution of the dry mixture with water. It is enough to mix them and leave for a while. Finished grout is applied with a brush or cloth. After drying, the seams are washed again with a damp sponge.
The preparation of the walls comes down to their plastering and leveling. Tiles must be laid on a completely flat wall. If the seams between the bricks are deep, they are closed with a solution. First you need to determine the verticality of the walls. If the wall has a deviation from the vertical of more than four centimeters, leveling it with plaster does not make sense. Such walls are sheathed with plasterboard sheets.
First you need to remove the stucco stuck to the wall and plaster all the cracks. The only tool that can do this job, to smooth out all the flaws, is a rule of at least two meters in length. It is the rule that all excess solution is cut off. If there is no rule, then you can use a flat metal corner or a square pipe of suitable length instead. The applied solution must be removed by the rule without sparing.
Proper foundation preparation
The success of the event depends not only on the quality of the materials purchased, but also on how thoroughly the preparatory work has been carried out. Laying should be done on the wall, cleaned from the old coating. Walls and floors should have a perfectly clean and even surface. Otherwise, the tile will swell over time, crack, and then completely fall off.
Old tiles are beaten off with a chisel and hammer. You can use a puncher, but there is a lot of noise from it. The paint is peeled off with a spatula or drill.
The floor is aligned in two ways:
- concrete mix
- leveling mixture.
Tile floor leveling in the bathroom
The latter option is more expensive, easier to execute and allows you to get a perfectly flat surface.
If there are significant irregularities on the walls, they are eliminated with concrete mixture or putty. However, it’s easier to cover them with moisture-proof drywall
When applying it, special attention will have to be paid to sealing joints. So that moisture does not penetrate inside, they are additionally varnished
The primer helps to increase the moisture-resistant qualities of the material and increase adhesion. She is recommended to cover not only drywall, but also a concrete or brick base.
Technological joining of laminate and ceramics can be done using the following products:
- the use of flexible PVC profile allows you to connect curved bends,
- a flexible metal profile is used to connect curved zones and straight seams,
- aluminum sills are used for processing joining surfaces under the door leaf,
- the use of a box threshold increases sound insulation and seals the joints,
- with the help of a transitional PVC profile, coatings with a large difference in heights are finished,
- when using a cork compensator, an even connecting surface is obtained between the laminate and the tile,
- with the help of a T-shaped profile, straight seams are formed from the array.
One of the most difficult ways to lay tiles in the bathroom, requiring experience. When choosing such a masonry, it must be borne in mind that due to the constant cutting of the tile, the material consumption will be much higher compared to other options. However, the effort and money spent will pay off, because the diagonal laying of tiles is also one of the most spectacular.
Despite the spectacular effect, the diagonal design is not suitable for every bathroom. If the area is small, it is better to use simpler options, since the diagonal will only make visible all the shortcomings of the room. It is better to choose such a layout for a spacious room, however, it is worthwhile to monitor the curvature of the walls - they should be perfectly even without deviations from the perpendicular axis. How to use a tile laid out diagonally in the design of the bathroom can be seen in the photo.
Clear lines can significantly change the proportions of the room. The horizontal layout of the tile most often represents a dark bottom in combination with a light top. There may also be an option with several horizontal stripes of different colors. With this design, a monophonic tile is most often used.
If you chose a finish with patterns, it is better to separate the parts of the masonry with a plain border. To make the design more harmonious, the border is used not only at the bottom of the walls, but also under the ceiling. How the horizontal layout of the tiles in the bathroom will look can be seen in the photo below.
With a vertical version of the layout of the tiles in the bathroom, brighter stripes clearly stand out against a plain background. The width of the stripes may be different, the same or alternating. However, it should be borne in mind that a too frequent strip looks too bright and is not suitable for decorating all the walls of the bathroom. In this way, it is better to highlight only one wall, a separate section or a niche.
Vertical stripes visually pull the room up, while at the same time narrowing it slightly. It looks good on long longitudinal walls, but not on the ends in narrow rooms. With the help of strips, you can distinguish different areas of the bathroom, if it is combined with the toilet, as well as the most significant design elements.
The combination of ordinary tiles and mosaics in the bathroom looks very impressive. This mosaic is more difficult to install, because you need to lay out hundreds of small elements exactly according to the scheme, never making a mistake.
However, there are simpler options - ready-made mosaics on the grid or imitation. Mosaic can be used in many ways:
- Wall decor. Mosaic pattern can be made in one color or be with a full-fledged pattern. The choice of ornaments, colors or the plot of the images depends on the interior style and personal wishes of the household.
- Flooring. If the bathroom is small, the colorful mosaics on the walls may look too bright, however, such decor on the floor will look good even in a small area.
- Zoning space. Using mosaics, you can divide the bathroom into zones. Such decoration is especially popular in the shower area or on the wall along the bath.
- To attract attention. Mosaic can highlight specific details, for example, a sink or hooks for bath towels.
- Decoration. Mosaic does not have to occupy the entire bathroom, it can be a border, separate stripes or patterns.
- Hard to reach places. The tiny details of the mosaic allow it to be used to finish the most complex surfaces.
How beautifully combine the tiles with mosaics in the bathroom can be seen in the photo.
Wipe the seams in the bathroom
Do-it-yourself tiling of the bathroom
It is convenient to distribute the solution on the surface using a rubber trowel, which must be carefully guided diagonally along the laid tile, holding it slightly at an angle. Correct mashing allows you to fill up to one seam with grout, but it is better to check this after the end of the process
It is recommended to start grouting from the wall near which the bathtub stands, and when it is finished, it will be possible to clean the place from which the repair was started. After grouting, the ceramic tile is treated with a sealant to protect it from harmful effects, which is applied with a paint roller, but if only seams are processed, you can use a regular brush. To tile served as long as possible, it is treated with sealant at least once a year.
A bit about material selection
As we have already said, ceramic tile for the bathroom is the most popular type of finishing material. Certain requirements are imposed on this room, respectively, and the materials for its decoration should be chosen correctly, namely taking into account their technical characteristics:
- minimum moisture absorption
- increased resistance to the effects of cleaning chemicals,
- resistance to mechanical stress,
- resistance to high temperatures and steam,
- Floor tiles for the bathroom must be resistant to abrasion, resist bending and abrasive substances.
When choosing a material, one should proceed from the quality of ceramics. Tiles that meet European standards can be of three varieties, each of which is marked with a certain color. The first grade is a tile with a red marking, characterized by high quality and durability. The second grade is a material that can have a defect of about 5%, this series is marked with blue or blue marking. The lowest grade is marked in green.
Ceramic tiles are distinguished by a stability class, of which there are five, they are marked with Roman numerals. In a living room, it is advisable to use material not higher than class III wear resistance, and for the bathroom, first class is sufficient. Since laying tiles in the bathroom is not easy, you should correctly calculate its amount - ideally, it is worth taking material with a margin of about 15% to take into account the fit. Well, the design of the material plays an important role in the choice - after all, everyone wants the bathroom to be not only functional and comfortable, but also beautiful. And the variety of tiles is the guarantee that you can easily find your way of decoration.
Where to start
The first thing you need to think about is not how to arrange the decor of the tiles in the bathroom, first you need a floor plan with the location of the main interior details - plumbing and furniture
What you need to pay attention to when creating a scheme:
- Thinking over the drawing, observe all the proportions and scale of the bathroom, but do not make the drawing too small. The scheme should be large enough to place all the elements on it and clearly prescribe the dimensions.
- For the correct layout of the tiles in the bathroom, you need to know the exact dimensions, so measure all the walls of the room taking into account the doorway, ledges and niches. Sign the obtained values on the diagram.
- Mark the location of the plumbing and furniture in the drawing.
- Be sure to indicate the location of the ventilation shaft, sockets, switches, etc.
- Interior details that are mounted on top of the trim are not necessary to indicate on the diagram - they do not affect the layout in any way.
- Make a check - compare the real bathroom with the resulting circuit, make sure that everything is correct.
This is how a bathroom with the correct layout of tiles should look like
An exact scheme is needed to correctly calculate the amount of material, the size of the tile and the ornament itself. If we allow even a small miscalculation, it may turn out that the most beautiful elements of the layout will be behind the plumbing or in the corners, otherwise the effect that was conceived from such a decor will be completely lost. Examples of design that can be found for laying tiles in the bathroom are presented in the photo below.
Sketch tile layout in the bathroom
Choice of tile and its laying
In order to correctly calculate the amount of facing material, it is necessary to measure the surface area on which it will lie, as well as determine the size of the tile itself. Tile sizes range from 100 × 100 mm to 600 × 600 mm, and it is sold per square meter. You need to buy it with a margin, since when laying about 5% can go to marriage. Also, the number of tiles purchased is affected by the way it is laid. There are several such methods:
- Direct styling. This is the easiest and most common way.
- Diagonal styling. It looks more impressive, suitable for square rooms, helps hide oblique walls.
- Staggered. The best way to lay tiles in two or more colors.
- Offset styling. In this case, the tile of the next row is placed with an offset to the tile of the previous row.This option is more suitable for rectangular rooms.
- Mosaic. This method is made of facing material of different sizes and colors, while creating a specific pattern, pattern.
After the choice and method of installation is made, you can begin to prepare the walls.
Before starting repairs
Before you put the tiles in the bathroom with your own hands, you need to check if there is a slope on the walls. This is easily done using a level, the walls should be strictly at an angle of 90 degrees. If you deviate up or down, you will need to pre-level the surface with plaster. How this can be done can be seen in the video, without leveling it, it will not work to lay tiles in the bathroom - such a repair risks not lasting long.
If the angle between the wall and the floor deviates from the norm of 90 degrees, ugly gaps may appear in the masonry between the tiles, difficulties with installing a bathtub or shower tray (the appearance of large gaps that have to be sealed with sealant), etc.