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Andrey Vdovenko | 11/30/2018

Hello dear readers of the Andryukhin blog. Often for the parents of the baby, the first case of nosebleed is a serious matter.

How to behave to parents if they bleed nose, how to stop nosebleeds in a child, what needs to be done in the first place, what cannot be done, and preventive measures to prevent this from happening again, this article will be discussed. In addition, you will learn about an effective tool to increase immunity.

Usually, nosebleeds begin when the walls of the vessels in the nasal cavity are damaged. If blood of scarlet color and without various secretions runs from the nose, then this is front nose bleeding. If the blood is dark in color with blood clots and various impurities from transparent to coffee in color, and runs in a stream, then you must immediately call an ambulance at home.

Types of nosebleeds

Epistaxis is a common occurrence and happens, more than half of the children, usually in the period from 2 to 10 years.

The following types of nosebleeds occur:

  • Front The most common case of nosebleed occurs in 9 out of 10 cases. Usually, the site of bleeding is in the lower part of the nasal septum. Due to the large accumulation of small vessels, therefore, they are often injured. In addition, blood can go due to too dry air in the room. In this case, dehydration of the mucous membrane occurs and cracks may appear on the nasal membrane.
  • The back. This is the most dangerous bleeding phenomenon. Localization is located on the back of the throat. Blood runs abundantly and it is very difficult to stop it at home. Call an ambulance immediately. May occur due to head injury or increased pressure. It poses a serious danger to the child and can result in death. According to statistics, every tenth case ends with the hospitalization of a child in a hospital.

Causes of nosebleeds

Bleeding begins with damage to the walls of blood vessels. Causes of occurrence may be:

Local reasons:

  1. Serious head and nose injuries (fracture of the nose, skull).
  2. Minor nose injuries (scratching and damage to the nasal mucosa, as a result of the sticking of various objects and picking in the nose).
  3. Inflammatory processes (sinusitis, rhinitis and sinusitis).
  4. Congenital curvature of the nasal septum.
  5. Severe physical exertion (due to sports).
  6. Various formations in the nasal cavity (polyps, tumors).
  7. Damage to the septum after surgery (removal of adenoids, various manipulations with sinusitis).

Common reasons:

  1. Hereditary causes.
  2. Deficiency of some vitamins and minerals (A, C, rutin - is responsible for the state of blood vessels).
  3. Diseases of the cardiovascular system. In this case, bleeding usually begins suddenly, the blood runs dark. Such bleeding can be from several times a month to several times a week.
  4. Regular intake of vasoconstrictor drugs.
  5. Feveras well as hyperthermia, sunstroke.
  6. The air in the room is too dry. To avoid this, it is necessary to ventilate the room before going to bed.
  7. Various infectious diseases.
  8. Pressure surges, both lowering and increasing pressure. If besides bleeding is present headachefeeling vomiting and nausea, then you need to contact a neurologist.
  9. Hormonal changes.
  10. Allergic reactions.

Usually blood flows when the integrity of blood vessels and capillaries in the Kiselbach zone is violated (the zone is located at the entrance to the nasal cavity, there are many capillaries in it).

Quite often, children can bleed at night, if this happens rarely, then do not worry.

Important! If the blood from the nose does not stop for 10-15 minutes or even may increase, you should immediately contact an ambulance.

The most common causes of nosebleeds in children

1. Viral and bacterial diseases. Some viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, measles, scarlet fever) have tropism (preference) to the cells of the nasal mucosa. These viruses cause inflammation in the nasal mucosa, its loosening, because of this, the vessels appear on the surface and begin to bleed. Therefore, very often with a cold in children, so-called symptomatic bleeding occurs.

2. Nose injury. Children are very fond of picking a finger in their nose, which is why trauma to the delicate nasal mucosa occurs. Also, a violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane can occur when it is struck in the nose, while in children it can cause bleeding not only a strong blow, but also a weak, barely noticeable touch. Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity can cause bleeding both during contact with the nose and when they are removed.

3. Frequent use of vasoconstrictor drugs. Vasoconstrictor drugs (nazivin, oxymetazoline, galazolin, naphazoline, nazol, nosakar, etc.) cause atrophy of the nasal mucosa, it becomes thin and easily wounded.

4. Frequent tamponade (insertion of a tampon into the nose) of the nasal cavity. In this case, a so-called vicious circle is observed. With bleeding, especially profuse, nasal tamponade is indicated. In this case, the vessels are pressed against the adjacent cartilage and bones, and blood flow is blocked over them. Because of this, bleeding stops. With frequent blockage of blood flow, the mucosa receives little nutrition and begins to atrophy. If the mucous membrane atrophies, it is more prone to bleeding, which means it is more often necessary to plug the nose. It turns out that the more we treat, the more we cause the disease. Therefore, it is very important to prevent bleeding and preventive measures.

5. Hereditary and acquired diseases. Some hereditary diseases (hemophilia) and acquired diseases (vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy, lupus) diseases cause changes in the blood coagulation system and blood vessel wall. Because of this, the bleeding time increases with minor damage to blood vessels, blood does not clot, the inflamed vascular wall heals poorly, and repeated bleeding is often observed.

6. Anatomical features. Curvature of the nasal septum is a provoking factor for the appearance of nosebleeds.

First aid for nosebleeds

Although the principle of first aid for nosebleeds is the same as in children, in adults, but still a little different.

All began to provide first aid to the child:

  1. It is necessary to reassure the baby. To provide first aid, it is necessary that the child calm down and begin to breathe calmly through his nose.
  2. The head should be lowered a little forward. In this case, the child will not swallow it, and it is easier to control the process of stopping blood. To stop bleeding, it is necessary that the legs are warm, and apply cold on the bridge of the nose. The main thing in this, all this needs to be done very quickly.
  3. The nostril from which the blood flows must be pressed. In some cases, when it is difficult to determine where it comes from, you can press both nostrils for 10 minutes. This time should be enough to stop the blood (the coagulation time in an average healthy person does not exceed 8 minutes). After determining which nasal passage the blood comes from, it is necessary to moisten the swab with 3% hydrogen peroxide and place it in the nostril. Instead of hydrogen peroxide, vasoconstrictive drops (Galazolin, Naphthyzine) can be used, it should be instilled in 2-3 drops. After this, the nasal passage, which was instilled, squeeze.
    It is impossible to place the entire swab in the nostril, it is necessary that one edge peeks out of the nasal passage. The dried swab should be removed very carefully.
  4. Lubricate the nasal mucosa with petroleum jelly or neomycin ointment. This will speed up the healing process.
  5. Give drink 3 tablets of ascorbic acid. Suitable for a child over 5 years old.

If you are not sure that you can do it yourself, then you need to contact someone who can do it. When blood comes from the nose due to a foreign body, you should not try to pull it out and the child should not try to blow his nose.

If the blood does not stop within 20 minutes of first aid, you must call a doctor. As a complication, loss of consciousness, low blood pressure, and even the development of anemia can occur.

After stopping the bleeding, it is necessary that the child sat quietly for some time and did not try to climb into the nose with his hands and objects. Also, do not give your child hot drinks.

  • After stopping the blood, you should find out the causes that caused it.
  • In most cases, the blood can be stopped quickly enough, but if the blood cannot be stopped within 15-20 minutes, an ambulance should be called.
  • Situations when you should call an ambulance right away:
  1. Hemophilia (violation of blood coagulation).
  2. There is a risk of large blood loss.
  3. Head injury (clear liquid may come out with blood)
  4. Loss of consciousness and a state of fainting.
  5. Long-term use of blood-thinning medications (Ibuprofen, Aspirin)
  6. Renal hypertension.

In these cases, it is necessary to urgently hospitalize the child in a medical facility.

How to stop nosebleeds

What to do if a child has a bleeding nose? When providing emergency first aid to a child, it is necessary to lay the child back on a flat surface or in a sitting position. You need to put cold on the bridge of the nose, it can be an ice pack or a towel dampened with cold water. To place swabs twisted from cotton wool into the nasal cavity, however, you cannot push the tampon into the nasal cavity too much, as it can damage the vessels and bones of the nose. After this, you must urgently consult a doctor.

Without cotton swabs and a cold lotion, you should not keep your head thrown back, because you will not stop the blood, it will simply drain not from the nose, but into the esophagus.

What can not be done?

When bleeding from a nose in a child, it is forbidden to do the following:

  1. Letting your nose blow. It can only increase bleeding.
  2. Throw your head back. This leads to compression of the veins on the head and can provoke pressure increasewhich will cause more profuse bleeding.
  3. Lay the child in a horizontal position. In this position, blood rushes to the child’s head, which increases bleeding. Blood in this case flows down the back wall of the nasopharynx and can enter the esophagus and respiratory tract, which can cause choking.
  4. Get a foreign body out of your nose yourself. In this case, you can move it and thereby provoke choking.

Medications for the treatment of nosebleeds

With nosebleeds, taking medication is an effective treatment.

The following drugs are prescribed to reduce capillary fragility, prevent bleeding, and quickly stop them:

  1. Vitamin C.
  2. Ascorutin (Ascorbic acid and Rutin). Strengthens the walls of blood vessels and compensates for the deficiency of vitamin C in the body.
  3. Routine.
  4. Calcium chloride. It is applied intravenously.
  5. Calcium gluconate. It is applied intravenously.
  6. Dicinon. In medicine, it is used to quickly stop bleeding, as well as their prevention. It is used in the form of injections and tablets.
  7. Vikasol. Improves the process of blood coagulation, and also enhances the properties of other drugs.
  8. Aminocaproic acid. It is applied in the form of drops or injections intravenously.

With severe as well as frequent nosebleeds, the doctor usually prescribes the following blood products:

  • Freshly frozen plasma.
  • Platelet mass.

Must remember! The drug, its dosage and the duration of the course of administration are prescribed only by the attending physician on the basis of a thorough examination of the child, as a result of which the causes of bleeding are determined.

In this case, drug therapy can improve the situation within a week. Moreover, if such treatment was ineffective, the attending physician prescribes other methods of treatment.

Prevention of nosebleeds

The following measures will help prevent future nosebleeds:

  1. Indoor humidification should be used. It is not necessary to use a humidifier, for the first time it may come down and hang wet towels in the child’s room.
  2. Try to prevent head and nose injuries.
  3. Reception of vitamin and mineral complexes. It strengthens blood vessels as well as boosts immune defenses baby.
  4. Serious workloads and contact sports should be avoided.
  5. Include fresh fruits and vegetables in your diet, especially citrus fruits, dairy products, fish and seafood.
  6. Try to eat less blood thinning foods. These include: fruits (apples), vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes), berries (currants and strawberries).
  7. Do not allow the child to spend much time outdoors in hot weather and without a headgear.

After nosebleeds have been stopped, the child must be shown to the doctor and there are reasons for this:

  1. It is difficult for parents to assess the extent of blood loss. This can be done by a doctor who can help restore the loss.
  2. If bleeding begins after surgery, then a doctor should be called immediately. In this case, the hospitalization of the child is recommended. This will help to avoid serious blood loss in the future.

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How to stop at home?

The sight of blood scares children, and some parents too. Therefore, to begin with, you should calm down, act without fuss and confidently.

Here's how to stop nosebleeds in a child at home:

  1. Set the teenager on a chair, and take the baby in his arms. Keep your head straight or tilt it forward.
  2. Use your fingers to squeeze the wings of the nose (or one nostril if the bleeding is unilateral). If there is a cloth or handkerchief nearby, use them. Breath comes through the mouth.
  3. Keep your nose pinched for ten minutes. Then let go and see if the bleeding has stopped. If it still goes, hold it again and hold for another ten minutes. Sooner than ten minutes, you should not let go of your nose. The resulting clot may come off and bleeding will begin again.
  4. If the child is old enough to compress his nose on his own, then it is worth using a cold compress. To do this, you can bring something from the freezer, wrap it in cloth and put it on the bridge of the nose. Keep the compress for a maximum of ten minutes.
  5. While the blood stops, you need to calm the child, talk with him. If possible - distract with an interesting toy, book, cartoons.

Be sure to reassure the child

When providing assistance, it is important not to harm the child. You need to firmly grasp what you can’t do:

  1. Throw your head back. In this case, blood flows down the back of the throat, it is likely that it will enter the esophagus or larynx. This is bad for several reasons. Firstly, it is difficult to estimate the amount of blood. Secondly, the child will experience nausea, vomiting may begin. And the most dangerous thing is that blood can get into the breathing tube and block the access of air to the lungs.
  2. Blow your nose or pull out blood clots from your nostrils.
  3. To put to bed. For the bleeding to stop, the head must be above the torso.
  4. Cough.
  5. Insert dry cotton swabs into the nose. When removing a dry swab, the frozen crust comes off, and the blood will have to be stopped again.
  6. Speak, actively move.

If a foreign object is stuck in the nose, you cannot remove it yourself. By doing so, you can cause additional injury, cause severe bleeding, or accidentally push an object into your throat. After the blood from the nose of the child has stopped, you should seek medical help.

If nosebleeds often occur, then what should I do?

So, nosebleeds are stopped. Well, if this is a one-time episode. But what if the baby’s nose bleeds constantly? It is necessary to undergo a medical examination, for which you should contact a pediatrician.

The doctor will prescribe a general blood test, determine whether the blood pressure is normal. If necessary, the child will be referred to a specialist, will do an X-ray or MRI.

According to the results of the examination, the doctor will give recommendations, prescribe therapy.

In about 30% of cases, the cause of nosebleeds in children remains unknown.

  1. Monitor the humidity level in the house or apartment. At low humidity, it is recommended to install an air humidifier at least in the children's room.
  2. Vasoconstrictor nasal drops should be used with caution and only on the advice of a pediatrician. For children younger than a year, nasal drops with a vasoconstrictor effect are prohibited.
  3. Wean a child picking his nose. If this has become a bad habit, take measures to eliminate it. Rinse your nose regularly with saline solution, prevent crusting.
  4. During the week after the episode of bleeding, exclude physical activity.
  5. In frost, cover the baby’s nose with a scarf.
  6. Introduce fresh fruits and vegetables in sufficient quantities into the children's diet.

Unfortunately, sometimes these measures do not help to completely avoid nosebleeds in children. It remains to be expected when the vasculature returns to normal with age. Teach your child to cope with such troubles on his own.

Prevention of nosebleeds in a child

After stopping the bleeding, it is necessary to establish the cause of its occurrence and exclude the recurrence of cases of bleeding. An examination of the nasal cavity is necessary to exclude foreign bodies, formations, polyps in the nasal cavity. It is necessary to take a general blood test, where the platelet count is determined (normally in children their content is from 180 to 400x10x109 in a liter), a blood test to determine the blood coagulation system (bleeding rate, number of active platelets, determination of blood coagulation factors).

Consultation of doctors: ENT doctor, hematologist, oncologist, immunologist, endocrinologist.

otorhinolaryngologist of the highest category

Academic multidisciplinary clinic Tsogma

Sinusitis

Often bleeding is caused by sinusitis - inflammation of the nasal mucosa in the sinuses. Usually appears if ventilation is disturbed here, and microbes are in an enclosed space. For example, with common cold symptoms, sinusitis can be a complication.

To completely get rid of bleeding, you need to eliminate their cause. Sinusitis occurs in acute and chronic form, can affect several sinuses. The appearance is affected by a weakening of the immune system or improper, incomplete treatment of the pathologies that cause it:

  • ARVI,
  • tonsillitis
  • adenoiditis
  • injuries
  • polyps and other formations,
  • neglected tooth injuries, etc.

Blood diseases

Blood diseases also need to be excluded during the diagnosis. Age should be considered: the smaller it is, the harder it is for a child, additional symptoms may appear. Common disorders that cause nosebleeds in children include:

  • clotting disorders: hemophilia, hemorrhagic diathesis,
  • a significant decrease in white blood cells (agranulocytosis),
  • decrease in platelet count (Werlhof disease),
  • leukemia.

Vasculitis

Vasculitis is called a violation of the integrity of the walls of blood vessels. This is a group of diseases affecting various parts of the body system: legs, arms, lungs, kidneys, etc.

It is necessary to check the condition of the vessels, whether there is a rash. This is important not only to eliminate unpleasant symptoms. Lesions of the nasal vessels are sometimes almost the only manifestations of some serious diseases.

Wegener's granulomatosis vasculitis is an inflammation of the vessels of the nasal cavity, its sinuses. Violation of the integrity of the walls due to the development of granulomas. Many do not know about the disease until severe consequences appear: the lungs and kidneys are affected. In the early stages, it is only a stuffy nose, bleeding.

What to do if it does not stop?

In 90% of cases, nosebleeds in children quickly stop. But you should be prepared for the fact that the blood from the nose in the child does not stop. What to do in this case?

Seek medical help. They also call an ambulance if the victim has severe symptoms:

  • blood pours without clotting
  • there is bleeding from other parts of the body,
  • blood color is too bright, with a touch of scarlet,
  • mixed blood (foamy or coffee shade).

At the same time, even mild bleeding from the nose can be accompanied by general symptoms that do not require medical attention:

  • dizziness,
  • prostration,
  • increased sweating
  • pale skin,
  • fainting state.

So what to do if the child runs blood from the nose and does not stop? An important rule: if the bleeding could not be stopped within twenty minutes - cause an ambulance.

You may need to have a nasal swab.

They call an ambulance even if there are dangerous signs and / or nosebleeds accompanied by aggravating circumstances:

  • traumatic head damage,
  • severe bruising of the nose,
  • coughing up blood
  • possible fracture of the skull bones,
  • vomiting with blood
  • fainting.

The presence of a complicating general disease in the child - diabetes mellitus, coagulation disorders - is also an occasion to seek emergency medical care.

How to quickly solve the problem?

There are several other ways to stop nosebleeds in a child. This is usually done if a simple pinch of the nose does not help.

  1. For ten minutes, plug the nose with cotton wool moistened with a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide.
  2. To instill in each nostril five drops of a nasal agent with a vasoconstrictor effect (galazolin, naphthyzine). You can do this twice.

There are several ways to quickly stop the nose from bleeding in a child, and everyone chooses the most suitable one for themselves.

How often are babies bleeding?

Usually the problem is low humidity. Bleeding episodes occur at night during sleep, when the baby is in a dry and warm room for a long time.

The methods for stopping nosebleeds for a child under one year old are the same as for other children. The key point is the baby’s posture - you need to keep him upright and not let blood flow down his throat.

At the same time, nosebleeds in children under two years of age are quite rare. Frequent bleeding in infants should be alarming - this is an occasion to visit a pediatrician.

Why is it flowing from the nose?

There can be many reasons why blood flows from the nose. They are conditionally divided into groups.

Local reasons are as follows:

  • bruises of the nose and head,
  • inflammation of the nose and neighboring organs (runny nose, acute respiratory infections, sinusitis),
  • damage to the nasal mucosa,
  • recent surgery
  • neoplasms in the nasal cavity.

  • increased intracranial pressure,
  • fever,
  • internal bleeding
  • change in hormonal status in puberty,
  • hematologic diseases,
  • disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys.

So there is anterior nosebleed

  • dramatic climate change,
  • low humidity
  • high pressure drop,
  • the use of drugs - nasal drop, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulants,
  • extreme cold or heat
  • overwork.

Sometimes the baby’s nose bleeds often after training. Here's what you need to do in this case: inform the coach, reduce the load. Perhaps it makes sense to take a short break in class.

Why does a teenager happen?

In adolescence, rapid growth occurs, organ systems develop spasmodically, disproportionately. Sometimes the cardiovascular system does not keep up with the general pace. A change in the level of sex hormones affects the condition of the capillaries and the composition of the blood.

In adolescence, the emotionality of the child is increased. The number of stressful situations is increasing. In impressionable children, nosebleeds can begin from excitement.

If a teenager has blood from the nose, then the vast majority of this is due to the following points:

  • changes in blood pressure
  • increased intracranial pressure,
  • in girls - the formation of the menstrual cycle.

Pathologies of vascular tone regulation

A common cause is an increase in blood pressure. This happens when the larger vessels of the body cannot properly regulate the blood flow, and the smaller ones burst. Violations result from:

  • hypertension
  • heart pathology, for example, malformation,
  • vegetative-vascular dystonia,
  • lung disorders: pneumosclerosis,
  • stress as a result of physical effort, stress,
  • kidney disease.

First aid for nosebleeds

In some cases, help requires minimal effort; in others, knowledge is needed. They will help preserve the health of the child: to cope on their own or hold out until the arrival of medical workers.

Sometimes everything goes away on its own, but it is necessary to find out the reasons. Nasal bleeding in children, whose treatment is performed blindly, may recur, and the condition of the child may worsen.

What to do with anterior nosebleeds

Help with anterior bleeding is as follows.

  1. It is necessary to reassure, unfasten the collar.
  2. Attach the correct position. The head should be above the body, for example, reclining. You can put the child and slightly tilt forward.
  3. On the bridge of the nose - something cool: a scarf with ice, a damp rag, etc. Sometimes a cold object is placed on the back of the head, and legs are placed in the heat: on a heating pad, etc.
  4. Use vasoconstrictor drops such as naphthyzin. Squeeze the wings of the nose slightly.
  5. Insert a cotton swab or bandage soaked with vasoconstrictor or hydrogen peroxide. Press against the nasal septum as high as possible. To take out a tampon with blood accurately, to moisten with peroxide.
  6. If blood comes from the right nostril, raise the right hand, plug the left nostril, and vice versa. If - from both, up - two hands, nostrils are clamped (for adults).

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Bleeding should stop after 20 minutes or earlier. Otherwise, you need to urgently call an ambulance.

What to do with back nose bleeding

If large vessels of the posterior sections are affected, it is unlikely to be able to stop bleeding on their own. If there is suspicion, the blood goes quickly, it is better not to wait and immediately call the doctors. It is also worth considering.

  1. Blood can flow along the back of the throat. It is not visible, it is detected by doctors with pharyngoscopy.
  2. Blood sometimes comes from the nose, but its source is damaged lungs, stomach, etc. They are distinguished, for example, by color: from other organs - an unnatural shade, "unclean", sometimes foams.

There are cases when an ambulance is also called.

  1. Serious injury to the nose and head. In the latter case, a clear liquid can sometimes flow out with blood.
  2. The child suffers from hypertension, diabetes, etc.
  3. Loss of consciousness.
  4. Vomiting blood and stuff.

What can not be done with nosebleeds in children

With independent assistance, it is unacceptable to do the following.

  1. Extract foreign particles, even they cause the disorder. In case of failure, choking may occur.
  2. Throwing your head back, although many are more accustomed to it. Blood sometimes enters the stomach, lungs. The result is vomiting or suffocation.
  3. Often blood from the nose flows again after stopping. Reason: the swab was pulled out abruptly or not wetted by means such as hydrogen peroxide.
  4. Blow out, as the resulting clot, a blood clot, is displaced.

Indications for hospitalization

If the blood goes through the nose, sometimes the child will have to be hospitalized. This is necessary in the following cases:

  • can't stop for a long time
  • her losses are already significant
  • there are suspicions of serious illness, injury,
  • find out the cause of the disorder.

As a rule, first the children are placed in the ENT department of the hospital. There, diagnostics are carried out and it is determined which specialist needs to be connected next. If necessary, it can be:

  • neurologist,
  • hematologist,
  • endocrinologist
  • surgeon and more.

Often the decision to hospitalize is made by an ambulance doctor. Even if the bleeding could be eliminated on its own, but there are suspicions, or something like this is not the first time, it is better to take the child to the clinic. It is important to find the causes of the disorder and, if necessary, undergo treatment.

General principle for stopping nosebleeds

Bleeding is not always dangerous and quite often you can deal with it yourself at home. All measures to stop this process are quite simple and do not require any special skills. If there is no opportunity to contact a medical institution, the following measures should be taken:

  1. The patient must be reassured. Excessive nervousness, stressful situations contribute to an increase in heart rate and increase blood flow. In this case, bleeding can only intensify.
  2. Many people think that if you throw back your head, then the blood will stop flowing faster. This is actually a fallacy. Blood accumulating in the nasal cavity can enter the mouth and respiratory tract. This condition can cause death.
  3. If bleeding has begun, the patient is laid on a bed or other flat surface with his head slightly raised. To do this, you can put a pillow or rolled up fabric.
  4. In the room, you need to open the windows so that fresh air enters the room where the patient is. Also, squeezing items of clothing and accessories (belts, chains, neckerchiefs, scarves) should be removed from the patient.
  5. After this, you need to press the patient's wings of the nose to the central septum and establish breathing through the mouth. This position should be maintained for about 10 minutes.
  6. If blood flowed from only one nostril, then you can try to raise the arm located on this side, and hold the wings of the nasal passages on the opposite side. In this position, the current decreases faster. It is also possible for the patient to raise both hands up, but someone else should hold his nostrils.

These measures will help stop minor bleeding. If the situation is more complicated, then cold should be applied to the affected area (ice or another cold object). After five minutes, the vessels will narrow and the blood will stop going.

Sometimes folk remedies are used to stop blood flow. The most common of them is the juice of fresh yarrow leaves. They are well kneaded and inserted into the nose instead of tampons. You can directly squeeze the juice and drip into each nasal passage. The situation will quickly return to normal.

Another well-known method of stopping blood flow is gauze swabs dipped in hydrogen peroxide. Turundas are twisted from a bandage or other sterile material, watered with a medicine, squeezed slightly and injected into both nostrils of the patient.

Stop the abundant nosebleeds in a baby in the same way as in an adult. But you should remember, if you have to use tampons, then they must match the size of the baby’s nose. At the same time, the kid needs to be explained that nothing terrible happened. Children are often afraid of the sight of blood, and fear can only lead to a worsening of the condition.

First aid for a child - step by step instructions

  1. If the bleeding is not severe, the baby can sit on a chair and ask him to breathe deeply with his mouth.
  1. An ice warmer or a cold compress is applied to the nose bridge, while holding the nostrils with your fingers.

  2. If bleeding from the nose does not stop after 10 minutes, swabs (turundas) are made from gauze, moistened with a product intended for narrowing blood vessels in a children's dosage or in hydrogen peroxide.
  3. After the blood flow stops completely, the child should rest a bit.

  4. If all of the above activities do not help, you must call an ambulance. Specialists will deliver the child to the department for a full examination and to find out the reasons for this condition.

The most common causes of nosebleeds in children are:

1. Viral and bacterial diseases. Some viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, measles, scarlet fever) have tropism (preference) to the cells of the nasal mucosa. These viruses cause inflammation in the nasal mucosa, its loosening, because of this, the vessels appear on the surface and begin to bleed. Therefore, very often with a cold in children, so-called symptomatic bleeding occurs.

2. Nose injury. Children are very fond of picking a finger in their nose, which is why trauma to the delicate nasal mucosa occurs. Also, a violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane can occur when it is struck in the nose, while in children it can cause bleeding not only a strong blow, but also a weak, noticeable touch. Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity can cause bleeding both during contact with the nose and when they are removed.

3. Frequent use of vasoconstrictor drugs. Vasoconstrictor drugs (nazivin, oxymetazoline, galazolin, naphazoline, nazol, nosakar, etc.) cause atrophy of the nasal mucosa, it becomes thin and easily wounded.

4. Frequent tamponade (insertion of a tampon into the nose) of the nasal cavity. In this case, a so-called vicious circle is observed. With bleeding, especially profuse, nasal tamponade is indicated. In this case, the vessels are pressed against the adjacent cartilage and bones, and blood flow is blocked over them. Because of this, bleeding stops. With frequent blockage of blood flow, the mucosa receives little nutrition and begins to atrophy. If the mucous membrane atrophies, it is more prone to bleeding, which means it is more often necessary to plug the nose. It turns out that the more we treat, the more we cause the disease. Therefore, it is very important to prevent bleeding and preventive measures.

5. Hereditary and acquired diseases. Some hereditary diseases (hemophilia) and acquired diseases (vasculitis, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy, lupus) diseases cause changes in the blood coagulation system and blood vessel wall. Because of this, the bleeding time increases with minor damage to blood vessels, blood does not clot, the inflamed vascular wall heals poorly, and repeated bleeding is often observed.

6. Anatomical features. Curvature of the nasal septum is a provoking factor for the appearance of nosebleeds.

7. Hot and dry air. The sultry climate helps to dry the mucosa, its atrophy and increased vulnerability, which leads to bleeding.

8. Benign and malignant tumors in the nasal cavity. Very often in children in the nasal cavity with repeated bleeding polyps are detected. Also, nosebleeds can cause angiomas - benign vascular tumors. These tumors very often appear in children anywhere where there are blood vessels. Over time, these tumors shrink and completely disappear, but in some rare cases they can grow and bleed. In adolescents, very often with bleeding in the nasal cavity, angiofibroma (a benign tumor from the vessels and connective tissue) can be detected.

9. Hormonal background. During puberty, girls experience increased production of sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone), which leads to an increase in blood supply to the nasal vessels, the mucous membrane swells, becomes thinner and bleeding appears.

10. Diseases of other organs and systems. Very often, diseases of other organs can cause a decrease in the coagulation ability of the blood, and because of this bleeding appears, both from the nose and from other organs. This can be observed in hepatitis, when the liver is affected, leukemia (malignant blood diseases), anemia (a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood) and hypovitaminosis (a decrease in the content of vitamin C and P in the body).

11. External factors. Exposure to radiation (radiation sickness), thermal, electrical, chemical (ingestion of acids, alkalis in the nose) burns of the nasal cavity cause bleeding from the nose.

12. High voltage. Blood vessels in children are very thin and with a sharp increase in pressure in the nutria of the vessels can burst, therefore, with severe coughing or sneezing, nosebleeds can appear.

13. Increased blood pressure (arterial hypertension) very often leads to vascular damage and bleeding.

14. Bleeding from the nose may be due to the presence of bleeding from other organs, for example, from the esophagus or stomach.

As you can see, part of the causes of the appearance of blood from the nose are quite serious, so it is necessary to show the child to the doctor.

Features of stopping bleeding: upon impact, pressure

The above are standard instructions that will help stop mild bleeding from the nose in a child. However, there are situations when the listed activities do not have the necessary effect. For example, if a baby was previously diagnosed with hypertension or an injury occurred. In this case, additional measures will be required.

How to help a child?

Often, parents do not know what to do if the child has nosebleeds.

Doctors tell how to stop nosebleeds without harming the baby:

it’s not necessary to worry about it yourself and it’s important to calm the baby, put the baby down or hold it in your arms, but don’t tilt your head back, it will cause undesirable consequences, see if there is any foreign substance in the nose, it is forbidden to pull it out yourself so as not to cause additional trauma and not cause more severe blood loss ,

the head should be tilted to the chest, put ice or a cold wet towel to the nose, make a warm bath for the feet or put on socks, introduce a hydrogen peroxide cotton swab into each passage.

If the blood does not stop for more than fifteen minutes, you must call a doctor.

In emergency situations, the doctor will do:

Nasal swab with a special drug, chloroacetic acid will quickly stop the blood. Coagulation of the vessel that bleeds, while using a laser, chemicals. It places a hemostatic sponge in the nose, which increases blood coagulation, and it stops going.

If the baby only once bleeds from the nose, this does not indicate a pathological deviation. But a regularly recurring condition requires effective therapy.

After stopping the blood, you need to lubricate the nasal passages with petroleum jelly or other ointments in the morning and evening to prevent drying out of the mucosa and repeated bleeding.

During the allocation of blood, you can not blow your nose, throw your head back, and remove a foreign object yourself.

Only an experienced doctor can remove the foreign body, determine the cause of bleeding.

Intensive blood flow requires hospitalization of the child in a medical facility, where he will be assisted. After the incident, the child should not play sports, take hot food, drinks.

Signs of blood loss and complications

In addition to the discharge of blood from the nose, children may have the following symptoms:

dizziness in impressionable people, a desire to drink water, pallor of the skin, problems with palpitations, general malaise, weakness.

An average degree of bleeding is accompanied by dizziness, shortness of breath, and blood pressure decreases. Sometimes the skin may turn blue, tachycardia may occur.

Large blood loss can lead to hemorrhagic shock. Doctors diagnose tachycardia, a weak pulse.

To determine the cause of the pathological deviation, it is necessary to conduct a blood test, a coagulogram.

Constant relapses can cause serious consequences:

Depletion of the baby. Anemia Impaired immune system.

Chronic blood loss causes oxygen starvation, violate the functionality of the whole body.

Therefore, if a child has blood flowing, parents should not ignore the problem and be sure to show their offspring to an experienced specialist.

Many diseases of bacterial origin cause nosebleeds, and infection can be detected with repeated manifestations, if they are more often than twice a week.

Blood from the nose is observed with serious pathologies:

the presence of tubercle bacillus, heart failure, education in the nasal cavity.

The first symptom of tuberculosis bacillus infection is nosebleeds. Pathogenic mycobacteria in the human body destroy blood vessels, cartilage, which leads to blood loss. In tuberculosis, such a deviation occurs daily. The accompanying signs of the disease are elevated body temperature, the child sweats heavily during sleep, and weight is reduced.

It is important to diagnose the disease in the first stages in order to prevent serious consequences.

With heart disease, heart failure is often diagnosed, as a result of which nosebleeds are observed, which lasts about five minutes. The disease leads to stagnation of blood, increased pressure in the vessels. Blood loss occurs very often, regardless of the time of day.

The disease can be recognized by additional symptoms: shortness of breath, cough, skin cyanosis. It is important to diagnose the disease at an early stage in order to prevent pathological changes.

The formation of cysts or tumors in the nose always leads to heavy bleeding, which requires emergency assistance from health workers. Cystic or other neoplasms destroy tissues in the nasal cavity, which causes blood loss with an admixture of mucus, blood clots.

A pathological formation can be suspected by prolonged blood loss, which does not stop for ten minutes.

With hypertension

If the baby suffers from a periodic increase in pressure and develops bleeding, then he needs to take the previously prescribed antihypertensive drugs and urgently contact a medical institution. To stop hypertensive epistaxis, before the arrival of an ambulance, you must follow all the points of the above instructions.

It should not be expected that the blood flow during hypertension will stop on its own. Expectant tactics can lead to heavy blood loss or even death.

When to see a doctor?

If at home the blood does not stop within 15-20 minutes, you should consult a doctor.

ENT performs cauterization of the nose with silver nitrate. This will prevent rebleeding. And also prescribe drugs containing calcium and vitamin C. The duration of treatment, determined by the doctor, the course varies from two to four weeks. In modern clinics, vessels are cauterized with liquid nitrogen or a laser. The procedure is recommended after a full examination and for medical reasons to the patient.

Regular blood loss requires consultation with other specialists:

The otolaryngologist will exclude the presence of neoplasms, polyps, foreign objects, curvature of the nasal septum. The therapist will prescribe an ultrasound scan of other organs. A hematologist can diagnose a pathological change in the blood, identify genetic diseases.

A general blood test is also prescribed, blood pressure is measured. If the examination did not show pathological processes in the baby’s body, preventive measures, traditional medicine will prevent bleeding.

Improves the state of health decoction of viburnum, it has a hemostatic effect. It is recommended to drink decoctions of nettles, millennials, and bulbs.

Regular bleeding indicates a serious blood disease, a pathological process in the body that requires effective treatment or surgery.

Ambulance should be called in case of emergency:

if the blood cannot be stopped on its own for fifteen minutes, with a head injury, with blood loss from the nose, there may be a skull pearl, profuse discharge without clot formation, hemoptysis or vomiting with blood, high blood pressure if the patient has gone on for diabetes, with fainting baby if blood coagulation is impaired.

Such situations require immediate hospitalization, loss of time causes serious complications, treatment becomes more complex and lengthy.

On impact

Injuries resulting from a fall, a fight or an accident can be very serious. If at the same time nose bleeding has begun, do not let the patient’s condition drift.

If the victim is not conscious, then he should be laid on his side so that the oozing blood does not get into the respiratory tract.

In another case, it can be laid on a bed with a raised headboard or help to take a half-sitting position with his head down.

Cold compresses, tampons with vasoconstrictor agents or hydrogen peroxide are also used to narrow the vessels. In this case, the patient clamps his nostrils with his fingers and holds until the bleeding stops. Do not bleed blood or rinse your nose with water. Such actions often lead to increased bloody discharge.

If after 10-15 minutes after the start of emergency measures, the bleeding could not be stopped, then an urgent need to show the patient a doctor. Excessive blood flow may indicate more serious injuries than simply bursting capillaries.

Preventive action

For preventive purposes, it is necessary to ventilate and moisten the living room. Try to protect the child from injuring the nose, monitor his balanced diet. Fresh vegetables and fruits should be present in the daily diet.

In the winter season, you can additionally use ascorutin, which contains vitamin C, the dosage is carried out according to the principle:

up to three years of age, it is recommended to take half a tablet once a day, for adolescents the dose is increased - one tablet, three times a day.

With constant colds, viral diseases, it is recommended to take drugs to moisten the mucous membrane. Such measures will strengthen the vascular walls and prevent bleeding.

In order to prevent repeated relapses, it is necessary to consult a specialist.

Upon examination, the doctor will be able to determine the presence of polyps, foreign objects, and various neoplasms.

And you also need to take a blood test, the results of the study will show platelet count. The norm for a child is 175x400 * 109 per liter of blood.

It is necessary to conduct a laboratory test for blood coagulability.

With regular nosebleeds, the child should be shown to experienced specialists: an endocrinologist, an immunologist, an otolaryngologist, and a pediatrician.

The treatment of the problem consists in strengthening the vessels, only after the identification of constant relapses is prescribed drug therapy.

In addition to medications, doctors recommend paying attention to nutrition and vitamin therapy.

You can rinse the nasal mucosa with saline. It can be prepared independently or purchased at a pharmacy.

It is also recommended to take the baby to the sea, moist air will strengthen the walls of blood vessels in a natural way.

Parents need to protect the child from mental and physical strain, to prevent prolonged exposure to the sun, in front of a TV or computer.

How to stop the blood from the nose in children?

When stopping the flow of blood from the nose, adults quite often make mistakes. What can not be done with nosebleeds? Deterioration of the baby's condition and increased blood flow can occur in the following situations:

  1. If the child throws back his head. In this position, the blood goes down the back wall, while the baby has to swallow the excess. It is impossible to determine the intensity of the pathology and determine the end of the process. Moreover, leaking masses can get into the respiratory tract, which will provoke more serious problems.
  2. A long stay in the nose of gauze swabs. Blood has the property of thickening, and when it completely impregnates the tissue, then again it begins to flow down the back wall. Therefore, the tamponade time for children should not exceed 5-10 minutes.
  3. Laying the baby on his back. As in the case of throwing the head back, the child can simply be drowned in blood masses with abundant blood flow.
  4. Encourage crumbs to talk and movement. Active muscle contractions can lead to increased bleeding. Therefore, in such a situation, a practically immobile position of the child is required. If a small patient is upset, crying or nervous, he needs to be reassured as soon as possible.

When is a doctor needed?

If you can’t cope with the bleeding that occurs on your own, the child needs urgent medical attention. Take the baby to a medical institution in the following cases:

  • prolonged bleeding (more than 15-20 minutes),
  • repeated ambulance events do not give the desired result,
  • copious discharge comes from both nasal passages,
  • the appearance of blood in the ear or hematoma of the facial part of the skeleton,
  • regular recurrence of bleeding
  • high pressure.

Also, parents should not forget about the prevention of such pathologies, if they develop quite often in the baby. First of all, it is necessary to exclude serious diseases that lead to bleeding. This can be hypertension, an infection that provoked a sharp rise in temperature, congenital blood pathologies, hormonal changes in the body, and much more.

If any diseases in the baby are not found, you need to try to prevent such conditions. No specific measures are required.

It should be borne in mind that the growing body constantly needs minerals and vitamins, which are necessary for the correct formation of all systems, including the circulatory.

A complete diet, including a sufficient amount of iron, ascorutin, magnesium will help strengthen brittle vessels.

Bleeding in toddlers in most cases occurs due to a parental oversight. First of all, the culprits of such conditions are small objects and toys that kids stuff into their nose. Parents need to maximally secure the play area of ​​the child, freeing it from major obstacles and small details.

How to stop blood from the nose of a child at home? Link to the main publication

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