Blood from the nose in children - the causes of pathology and the correct actions of adults

Nasal bleeding in children always scares both parents and the babies themselves. So, blood from the nose can be a consequence of a simple wound on the nasal mucosa, and may indicate more serious health problems.

What happened to the child, what is the cause of the bleeding, how to help? Many are lost, not knowing what to do, how to provide first aid. To behave properly in this situation, read the proposed article.

Types of nosebleeds

There are two types of nosebleeds: anterior and posterior. The first type (anterior) is the most common and accounts for about 90% of all nosebleeds. It is characterized by a quiet flow of blood with damage to blood vessels in the front of the nose. The second type (rear) is much less common - in 10% of all cases. Such bleeding occurs due to damage to larger and deeper vessels, while blood flows intensively down the back wall of the pharynx. It is more difficult to stop, it is more plentiful, and therefore it is advisable to urgently seek qualified medical help without trying to cope with it yourself.

Not far from the nasal entrance, in the anterior part of the nasal septum, there is a small Kisselbach zone (the size of a penny coin). It is rich in blood vessels, its mucous membrane is more loose and thin than in other areas. Therefore, it is very easy to break the membrane and cause nosebleeds in this zone of vascular plexus. This happens in most cases.

Causes of nosebleeds

The main reason why a child is bleeding from the nose is considered to be mechanical damage to the internal parts of the nasal cavity. The mucous membrane of the latter is literally mottled with capillaries, capable of bursting under strong influence (picking).

When a child has nosebleeds, causes may also include:

  • in edema caused by allergies
  • in the presence of a foreign body,
  • in breathing in oxygen-poor air, leading to overdrying of the mucosa, destruction of small vessels,
  • in great tension during blowing,
  • in periodic overheating of the body,
  • in the presence of tumors, polyps, adenoids,
  • in changing hormonal levels,
  • in the negative effects of chemicals. In addition to the above, there are other factors. Sometimes a child has nosebleeds due to the inability of red blood cells to coagulate, a decrease in platelet synthesis (thrombocytopenia), abnormal levels of sulfur or acetone in the blood, liver diseases, unnatural growth of blood vessels, the effects of strokes, falls, bruises. Blood may leak due to internal pathologies.
    If a child has nosebleeds, chronic, allergic rhinitis may be the cause of this. An increased risk is the abuse of vasoconstrictor drops, self-treatment without the supervision of a doctor.

Among newborns, babies 1 and more years, blood may appear if the child puts his fingers in the nose. It is also able to go with careless suction of snot by an aspirator. Most often, among small children, small discharge without clots is observed.
It is believed that for about 4-5 years, blood flows most often. A four-year-old child has not yet matured vessels, a very tender nasal mucosa.
An important role is played by such factors as climatic conditions, season of the year. According to medical statistics, bleeding is common among residents of regions with a dry climate. The winter months are considered the most favorable for the development of pathology.

As a rule, the development of nosebleeds is not preceded by any characteristic signs. Pathologies tend to develop suddenly, often under the most inappropriate circumstances.

Problem Overview

The nose in a child has a slightly different structure than in an adult. The nasal passages are narrow, the mucous membrane of the cavity is very delicate and easy to damage. Any adverse external and internal factors can lead to the appearance of blood from the nose.

Blood may leak out, and may drain down the back of the larynx. Therefore, two types of nosebleeds are distinguished:

  1. In most cases, anterior bleeding is diagnosed. In most cases, blood flows from one half of the nose. This happens due to trauma to the small vessels of the lower part of the septum. The cause may also be dry air, due to which cracks form.
  2. Less common is the back flow. It develops due to damage to large vessels. Blood flows down the larynx, so it is difficult to stop it. May result from injury or high blood pressure. This condition necessarily requires the intervention of specialists.

Epistaxis in children can begin suddenly, even in the middle of the night. It is very important at this time to reassure the child, to distract him, so that there is no crying and screaming, as this further provokes the course.

Very often nosebleeds in a child are observed during the heating season. The mucous surface and capillaries undergo frequent damage. Irrigation of the nose with saline solutions is especially useful at this time. You can buy ready-made compounds (Aqualor, Aquamaris, Dolphin), or you can cook at home yourself from distilled water and sea salt.

Epistaxis and its types in a child

Nasal hemorrhage - the outflow of blood fluid from the sinuses due to damage to the walls of blood vessels.

It is observed in 60% of children. Mostly unpleasant manifestations occur between the ages of 2 to 10 years, the peak is from 3 to 8 years.

Often you can stop it yourself, using the simplest methods (cold, hydrogen peroxide). If the blood goes hard, and this is repeated with enviable constancy, you should definitely pay attention, since pathology can lead to dangerous complications.

It is important to find out the cause of the unpleasant symptom, since such a condition is caused by somatic or infectious diseases.

According to doctors, in the ENT departments, about 10% of patients who were taken to the hospital with severe nosebleeds are treated.

There are two types of blood flow:

  • front - comes from the front of the nose, as a rule, only on one side. It makes up about 90% of all nosebleeds. Localization occurs, as a rule, in the lower part of the septum. This area contains a large accumulation of small vessels that are easily injured. Often, nosebleeds come from overdried air in the room. The result is dehydration of the mucosa and cracks in the nasal membrane,
  • the back is the most dangerous, because it appears due to a violation of the integrity of large vessels. Expiration occurs along the back of the throat. It is very difficult to stop the blood, so you should immediately call an ambulance. Occurs with increased pressure or in case of injury. It poses a great risk to the respiratory tract, as it can provoke aspiration and instant death.

Reasons: why does the child have nosebleeds?

If there is blood from the nose of the child, causes can be quite diverse. The most common pathology is diagnosed with:

  • Injury to the organ. In children, bleeding for this reason is observed most often. Children love to play with various light objects that accidentally cause injury. Most often, nosebleed in a 3-year-old child is observed precisely for this reason.Such an injury can occur in children if they often pick their nose.
  • ENT diseases. The pathological process is accompanied by frequent runny nose. At 1 year, bleeding can be observed with colds, which is explained by an incompletely formed immunity. If children often get discharge from the nose, then this causes damage to the inflamed vessels and bleeding.
  • Use of nasal medicines. The appearance of blood from the nose in a child 2 years of age or older is observed during the use of vasoconstrictor drugs. They are recommended for relieving cold symptoms. If they are used for a long period, then sometimes this leads to pathology, especially in infants.
  • Tamponade of the nasal cavity. It is a serious cause of nosebleeds in children 6 years old. If the baby often has blood from the nose, then they install tampons that can injure the mucous membrane, which will aggravate the situation.
  • Exposure to external factors. If the baby is 4 years old, dry air is constantly acting on the nasal cavity, then the mucous membranes dry out. This means that it is easy to injure.

Other causes can cause nosebleeds at 10 years of age. At risk are children of five years who suffer from hepatitis. Also, this symptom is observed with anemia and leukemia.

Bleeding can be diagnosed when exposed to a variety of provoking factors. That is why parents need to be careful about their child.

Causes of nosebleeds

There is only one direct cause of any bleeding - rupture of a blood vessel. But what provoked him, you need to figure it out immediately, as soon as the child receives first aid.

Epistaxis can occur for many reasons. They can be divided into two groups - local and general. Local factors include the following factors:

  • trauma to the nose (bruise, fracture of the cartilage) or fracture of the base of the skull,
  • internal damage to the mucosa (pencil, match, finger, nail),
  • foreign body - a parasite (in particular, during the migration of worm larvae, the walls of blood vessels are damaged), inhalation of small insects, ticks, small objects,
  • trauma during surgical operations or medical diagnostic procedures, for example, during sounding or catheterization,
  • curvature of the nasal septum - a birth defect,
  • an abnormality of the development of blood vessels (local expansion) or too superficial their location,
  • dystrophy of the nasal mucosa with atrophic rhinitis,
  • neoplasms in the nasal cavity (tumors), polyps, adenoids, tuberculous ulcers, hemangiomas and specific granuloma,
  • ENT diseases (sinusitis, chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, adenoiditis), which are accompanied by plethora of the mucous membrane.

Common causes can occur in various conditions:

  1. The fragility of the vascular walls, when the vessels are easily damaged as a result of the slightest tension in them:
  • infectious diseases occurring against a background of high temperature (chickenpox, measles, scarlet fever, rubella, whooping cough, flu, meningococcal meningitis, tuberculosis, etc.),
  • vasculitis (non-infectious inflammation of the walls of blood vessels),
  • Osler-Randu-Weber disease (hereditary pathology, a type of hemorrhagic diathesis, characterized by underdevelopment of the walls of the vessels),
  • lack of vitamins, especially ascorbic acid and vitamin K, as well as calcium.
  1. An increase in blood pressure at which a capillary wall ruptures:
  • physical and emotional overload,
  • adrenal tumors,
  • pulmonary emphysema and pneumosclerosis,
  • chronic kidney diseases - glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis,
  • aortic and mitral stenosis (heart defects),
  • some other congenital heart defects,
  • atherosclerosis,
  • hypertonic disease.
  1. Blood diseases:
  • disorders in the mechanism of blood coagulability, for example, with hemophilia, coagulopathy, hemorrhagic diathesis,
  • leukemia or aplastic anemia,
  • Verlhof's disease (thrombocytopenic purpura) - a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood,
  • liver cirrhosis and other chronic diseases that affect blood coagulation,
  • agranulocytosis (a decrease in the number or complete absence of white blood cells in the blood).
  1. Other reasons:
  • migraines and nervous disorders,
  • severe coughing and sneezing (contribute to a sharp increase in pressure in the vessels of the nose, because of which they can burst),
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (a hereditary disease resulting from malfunctions in the immune system),
  • hormonal changes in adolescence in girls, during which there is an increased production of sex hormones estrogen and progesterone,
  • dry indoor air, when the nasal mucosa dries up, atrophies, and the vessels become brittle,
  • sun or heat stroke (they are usually accompanied by tinnitus, weakness and dizziness),
  • frequent tamponade of the nasal cavity, as a result of which atrophy of the mucosa develops, and as a result, bleeding begins,
  • taking certain medications - vasoconstrictive drops for the nose, antihistamines, corticosteroids, Heparin, Aspirin.
  1. The rare causes that cause nosebleeds in children include:
  • radiation exposure
  • chemical, thermal and electrical burns of the nasal mucosa,
  • chronic intoxication of the body with harmful fumes and gases contained in aerosols and various chemicals,
  • differences in barometric pressure, for example, when practicing mountain climbing or when swimming in depth.

Sometimes nosebleeds are mistaken for bleeding from the esophagus, stomach, and lungs when blood flows through the nose and mouth.

Symptoms and types of epistakis

Excessive bleeding may be accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • heart rate
  • lowering blood pressure,
  • blanching of the skin,
  • a breakdown. Most often, the blood flows in a small flow, which leads to its small loss. Nevertheless, the child can sometimes feel dizzy, headache. Semi-fainting states are frequent. Such phenomena are more likely associated with fear and panic. Often, the discharge goes down to the throat, then to the stomach, causing the development of a vomiting reflex.
    There are two types of nosebleeds - anterior and internal. In the first case, blood secretion is observed in 80% of children prone to epistaxis, is benign. The elimination of this type of pathology is easy to perform, even without special medical knowledge.
    The second type of bleeding often requires qualified medical care, may become the reason for hospitalization.
    Also, the danger is the appearance of streams of bloody fluid at night, which can fill the respiratory tract, and then cause a debilitating cough. A baby or one-year-old, not being able to talk about his condition, wakes up his parents with a frightened cry. After such a situation in the morning you must call the doctor at home.
    With thrombocytopenia, the temperature may increase, except for the nose, blood may appear on the teeth. With such symptoms, children often experience fear, begin to cry at night.

Causes of the problem

Very often, blood begins to flow from the nose in children at 3 years old. The physiological and pathological causes of nosebleeds in children are distinguished.

The physiological reasons why nosebleeds open include:

  • overheating of the body, due to which pressure rises, and blood vessels burst (for example, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight),
  • dry, polluted air in the room where the child is,
  • severe overstrain (often the problem occurs in children under two years old when they cry a lot),
  • children of three years are very mobile, so often at this age, nose or head injuries are diagnosed,
  • damage to the nasal mucosa,
  • hit of a foreign object,
  • frequent nosebleeds develop against the background of improper use of vasoconstrictor drugs,
  • damage to the cavity after surgery (for example, after removal of adenoids or a puncture with sinusitis),
  • frequent bleeding can be observed due to infectious and inflammatory diseases of the nose, which lead to softening of the mucosa and swelling (runny nose, sinusitis).

Pathological reasons include:

  • irregular structure of the nasal septum,
  • the presence of polyps, tumors,
  • blood can flow due to thin, brittle vessel walls,
  • infectious diseases of internal organs,
  • heredity,
  • vitamin deficiency (often bleeding through the nose due to a lack of vitamins E and C),
  • tuberculosis,
  • high temperature rise
  • heart and vascular diseases.

Night bleeding can be triggered by bacterial or viral infections, exacerbations of an allergic reaction, too dry air in the room, or a foreign object entering the nasal cavity. Blood from the nose of a child at night may appear due to improper use of vasoconstrictor and anti-inflammatory drugs.

All of these adverse factors can also cause nosebleeds in adolescents.

If the condition is accompanied by headache, nausea, dizziness, rapid breathing, or other symptoms, the child should be shown to the doctor.

The cause of nosebleeds in adolescents can also be a change in the level of hormones in the body. In girls, in the premenstrual period, vessels in the nose may burst, so mucus with blood appears. Another adverse factor is increased pressure.

How to distinguish dangerous nosebleeds?

The most dangerous conditions are when blood runs from the nose at night. There is a pathology when exposed to the most unexpected factors. When there is blood in the nose of a child, there may be a reason for an allergic reaction, intracranial pressure. Also, blood can run with the uncontrolled use of drops with a vasoconstrictor effect.

If bleeding is repeatedly observed in the morning, then this indicates the presence of polyps. Also, this condition is observed with chronic physical or emotional overwork of the baby. The danger is also indicated by the fact that blood is excreted along with mucus. This indicates the occurrence of complications of ENT organs.

Causes of Nasal Blood

Pathology occurs due to damage to the walls of blood vessels. Doctors identify local and general causes of the expiration.

  • trauma to the nose or head (fracture of the skull, nasal plate),
  • minor injury to the mucous membranes (picking in the nose, stuffing of small objects, scratching),
  • postoperative damage to the nasal septum (removal of adenoid tissue, puncture for sinusitis),
  • abnormal development of vascular tissue,
  • inflammatory diseases of the nasal mucosa (rhinitis, sinusitis, sinusitis),
  • inherited anomaly of the curvature of the septum,
  • neoplasms (tumors, polyps),
  • heavy physical activity (playing sports).

  • fragility of the vessels of the nose,
  • infectious diseases
  • hereditary pathology,
  • dry air in the room,
  • lack of vitamin A, C,
  • body hyperthermia (overheating), solar “stroke”,
  • fever
  • cardiovascular disease
  • a jump in blood pressure in one or the other direction,
  • hormonal changes in the body in adolescents,
  • frequent use of vasoconstrictors and other drugs.

In most cases, bleeding occurs due to a violation of the integrity of blood vessels near the entrance to the nose. In this place is the Kisselbach zone, which is rich in capillaries.In addition, the mucous membrane here is more tender and fleshy than in other areas.

Children often have nosebleeds at night, which scares parents very much. If the unpleasant sign is disposable, then do not worry.

The main factor that could cause this situation is picking in the nose and mucosal injury. Another important reason may be too dry air in the room.

One of the causes of bleeding in children is the stuffing of small objects into the nasal passages

If blood loss is accompanied by complaints of headache and dizziness, the child should be taken for examination.

Bruises, bumps and injuries

The child is very mobile, so the occurrence of bruises and other minor injuries is not uncommon.

The nose can also get, as a result of which the capillaries rupture inside and bleeding occurs.

A child can damage the nasal vessels due to a fall, a hit on the floor, or on other children on the site, etc. In such cases, bleeding occurs suddenly, as a response to environmental influences. In order for the blood to go - a little damage is enough.

However, injuries are also serious. Then bleeding is only a symptom - for example, if the child fell out of bed and hit his head hard. In this case, he also complains of dizziness, squeezing in the temples.

Children older than two and three years of age are quite capable of breaking their nose to each other at the playground or in kindergarten. It happens that the baby came across another by accident, but at the same time he received a serious bruise or even a fracture (the nose bridge usually suffers).

Bleeding from the nose in such cases, as a rule, is severe and the child needs first aid to stop the blood loss. With a fracture or severe injury, the nose can swell and bruises form at the site of the impact.

If blood flowed from the nose of a baby or baby - also do not exclude external physical damage. Perhaps he hit himself in a dream.

And also, often the child pulls in the nose various objects of his environment - toys, spoons, etc.

Of course, young children, half-year-old and one-year-old, are more prone to this. Foreign bodies can become stuck in the nostril, causing permanent damage to the mucous membrane - this will cause blood to flow.

If you remove a foreign object (you may need emergency care if it blocked your breathing), bleeding will stop.

In the future, consequences may occur in the form of frequent rhinitis or even purulent discharge - especially if the subject has been in the wrong place for a long time.

During severe blowing or rinsing, local bleeding may also occur.

Correct action at the first sign of hemorrhage

Most nosebleeds can be easily stopped by independent efforts. During their elimination, adults must exercise self-control. The tense situation can greatly worsen the situation, cause negative childhood experiences, increase bleeding.

  • panic moods
  • laying the baby on his back,
  • throwing your head back
  • blowing out.

The sudden appearance of bloody secretions requires action quickly. The best thing that can be done at home is to put a cold, damp towel and crushed ice on the nose for 10 minutes. In this case, it is best to seat the child or give a semi-recumbent position.

You can use vasoconstrictors (Naphthyzin, Nazivin, Xylometazoline, Otrivin 0, 1%), then pinch the nostrils with your fingers. Dosage should be determined taking into account age. Standard - one or two drops.
It is important to refrain from coughing, sneezing. Sneezing, a person causes increased hemorrhage. Also, do not rub your nose.
A good folk remedy for nosebleeds is the introduction of a gauze swab, a cotton ball. To do this, they apply a few drops of a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution.However, at home, it is unlikely to achieve complete sterility, which increases the risk of infection, damage the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, using this method.
If the bleeding has stopped, it is recommended to rinse your mouth with cold water, then provide the child with peace for 1-2 hours. It is advisable to lubricate the nasal mucosa twice daily with Neomycin, Bacitracin, Vaseline. This is necessary to prevent its drying out, accelerate healing, and reduce the risk of relapse.
If the air in the apartment is not sufficiently humidified, you can dig in the nose with a preparation containing sea water (Salin, Aquamaris). Such medicines can be used for the noses of adolescents and infants. It is recommended that you purchase a humidifier if possible.
After nosebleeds have passed, for some time you should refrain from eating hot dishes, drinks, and physical education. This is necessary to prevent a sharp influx of blood to the head of the child, as well as its re-allocation.

Even one episode with epistaxis will require consultation with an ENT doctor and an examination. This will establish the reason why the child is bleeding from the nose, as well as prevent possible relapses. If the obvious reason is not clear, it is recommended to additionally contact an endocrinologist, a hematologist.

How to Stop Epistaxis: Helping

Competent actions of parents will allow you to quickly stop the blood flow in a child at home. You can not give medicine on your own. If the blood does not stop for more than 15 minutes, urgent medical attention is needed.

First aid for nosebleeds includes the following algorithm of actions:

  • If blood has gone, the child is seated on a chair and his head is tilted slightly forward. If you head back, it will be impossible to control the intensity of blood flow and the effectiveness of stopping. In addition, when you tilt your head back, you can cause vomiting.
  • It is better if the baby breathes through his mouth.

  • Emergency care consists in applying cold to the nose bridge (you can dampen a towel with cold water). Usually this method is enough to stop the blood.
  • If the cold was not enough, make a cotton swab and impregnate it with hydrogen peroxide 0.1%. Insert into the nostril of the bleeding passage and grip the wings of the nose. Instead of a solution of hydrogen peroxide, a child can drip drugs that constrict blood vessels, for example, Naphthyzine, Galazolin.
  • Stop bleeding by warming the feet. You can make a hot foot bath or apply a heating pad.
  • After all symptoms subside, it is recommended to lie down. Do not remove dried blood crusts from the nose, you can provoke new bleeding. It is allowed to lubricate the nasal cavity with petroleum jelly or Neomycin ointment.

You can not blow your nose, lay the child in a horizontal position, tilt your head back. If the nose is a foreign object, then you can not get it yourself.

If the actions taken do not bring improvement, emergency assistance should be provided. It is also necessary to seek the help of doctors in the case when the bleeding resumes again after stopping, the stream of blood is plentiful, pulsating, the condition of the child worsens.

It is necessary to undergo an examination in the case when the blood does not stop for more than 15 minutes, pours a strong current, the condition often occurs, as well as in the presence of other alarming symptoms.

Possible complications

If the child often has blood from the nose, then this can lead to the development of complications. With heavy blood loss, the baby often loses consciousness. With epistaxis, children are often diagnosed with nausea and vomiting.

This is due to blood flowing down the back of the throat into the digestive system. Incorrect first aid results in blood entering the nasolacrimal canal.That is why it flows through the eye sockets.

Bleeding can lead to serious complications, which requires timely provision of first aid to the baby.

Treatment features

Usually bleeding stops quickly and does not require medical intervention. However, sometimes the situation is uncontrollable and stopping the blood on its own does not work. Doctors should urgently be called if the child:

  • poor blood coagulation (hemophilia),
  • loss of consciousness, fainting,
  • taking drugs that promote blood thinning (aspirin-containing, ibuprofen),
  • there is a threat of great blood loss,
  • suspected fracture of the skull (a clear fluid flows with the blood),
  • there was vomiting with blood clots (possibly damage to the esophagus, ventricle) or bleeding with foam.

Emergency hospitalization is subject to children with renal hypertension, severe head and nose trauma, impaired coagulation.

If the blood does not stop for more than 15-25 minutes, urgently need to call an ambulance and hospitalize the baby

Diagnostics

Only a pediatric ENT doctor can determine the type of bleeding with the help of rhinoscopy and pharyngoscopy. After stopping the bleeding, you should start searching for the causes, that is, completely examine the child:

  • take blood tests
  • consult a pediatrician and pediatric specialists (hematologist, endocrinologist, cardiologist, immunologist, oncologist).

The child poked his nose

An ordinary small child pulls his hands to his nose several times a day. At a certain age, there is nothing at all more interesting than picking something in the nostril and getting an interfering booger.

Because of this, the mucous membrane and blood vessels are often irritated, which can cause persistent snot and runny nose.

Sometimes the blood goes if the baby picks up a dried crust formed on the site of the previous rupture of the capillaries - this causes sudden bleeding, the blood runs quickly and does not stop for a long time.

Help of doctors

Seek medical help:

  • with unsuccessful attempts to provide self-help (in a child, the nose does not stop bleeding for 20 minutes),
  • with head injuries that occurred before the appearance of blood,
  • with hemorrhage, accompanied by vomiting, pus,
  • with bleeding, which looks like a "fountain",
  • with fainting conditions.
  • if, shortly before bleeding, the child falls.

When the blood flows very strongly, they use a donor substance, hemodesis is administered intravenously.
If the child often has blood from the nose, and the main methods of treatment have been ineffective, surgery is indicated to stop it. With periodic anterior bleeding, endoscopic cryodestruction and embolization of large vessels of the nasal cavity give good results. Patients for whom this phenomenon is constant, are prescribed drugs that increase blood coagulation (calcium gluconate, Vikasol).

First aid

In order to stop nosebleeds, it is necessary to carry out simple manipulations.

  1. First of all, you should reassure the baby and explain to him that nothing bad happened, you do not need to swallow blood.
  2. The child is seated in a horizontal position. The body must be tilted slightly forward. If the head is thrown back, then the blood flow will only increase, and conditions will be created for its entry into the respiratory tract.
  3. The nostrils are compressed with your fingers for 5-10 minutes, and cold is applied to the nose.
  4. After 5 minutes Tampons impregnated in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide or vasoconstrictive drops (Naphthyzin, Galazolin) are carefully inserted into the nasal passages. The medicine is instilled in 2-3 drops and press the nostrils.
  5. Tampons should be removed very carefully, otherwise a blood clot will be damaged, and bleeding will begin again.
  6. Mucous membranes are smeared with Vaseline or Neomycin ointment (Bacitracin) - this will speed up the healing process.

After stopping the bleeding, the child should be taken for consultation with the ENT specialist to prevent recurrence. In addition, it is necessary to accurately identify the cause of nasal bleeding.

The baby's condition is assessed according to the results of rhinoscopy (a method for examining the sinuses using special mirrors). If necessary, the child is cauterized by the bleeding zone.

You may need to consult a hematologist, neuropathologist, endocrinologist and other specialists.

If the blood does not stop for more than 15-25 minutes, urgently need to call an ambulance and hospitalize the baby.

For first aid, the child should be placed on a chair or knees of an adult and slightly tilt the body forward, tightly hold the nostrils with your fingers for 5 minutes

Complications

With heavy nosebleeds, hemorrhagic shock may develop:

  • a sharp decrease in blood pressure as a result of large blood loss,
  • confusion or loss of consciousness
  • tachycardia,
  • severe pallor of the skin,
  • weak threadlike pulse.

For an objective assessment of the condition of the child after blood loss, it is necessary to make a general blood test and a coagulogram.

Frequently repeated nosebleeds can lead to serious consequences:

  • general depletion of the body,
  • the development of anemia,
  • decreased immunity.

Chronic oxygen starvation in case of nosebleeds leads to disruption of the activity of various organs, as well as to the development of irreversible pathological changes in their structure.

If you ignore such health problems, a fatal outcome is possible.

Recent surgery

Any medical intervention can damage the vessels in the nose. Medical procedures and operations sometimes cause instant bleeding, which disappears with the cessation of the procedure.

This usually occurs with sinus puncture, endoscopy, removal of polyps or adenoids, and other invasive actions that injure the nasal mucosa. To stop this, it is enough to finish the procedure itself and allow the mucosa to recover.

However, some surgical interventions can have long-term consequences - after them the blood flows periodically, since the condition of the vessels has worsened and it takes longer to restore them.

Komarovsky on the prevention of epistaxis

In order to prevent the development of epistaxis, frequent relapses, Dr. Komarovsky recommends that adults provide effective prevention for a child:

  • control the diet, enrich it with natural products containing vitamins, minerals, beneficial acids,
  • strengthen the vessels with Ascorutin, Prophylactin C, Immunovit C,
  • monitor a sufficient level of air humidity (optimally - about 50-70%),
  • carry out wet cleaning regularly without aggressive detergents,
  • exclude the independent choice of medications for the treatment of the common cold, other diseases,
  • to strengthen the immunity of the child,
  • practice hardening, moderate exercise.

It is useful to moisten the nasal passages with saline solutions, especially when there is a high risk of contracting a cold or flu. It is also necessary to teach children the skills of proper independent hygienic care, blowing your nose using an individual handkerchief.

What can not be done?

With nosebleeds, it is strictly forbidden:

  1. Blow out, as this causes increased expiration.
  2. Throwing his head back or laying the child on a horizontal surface - in this case, the veins in the head are compressed, the patient's blood pressure rises, which causes even greater blood loss. In addition, blood fluid begins to flow along the back of the throat and can enter the stomach or airways. In this case, vomiting or obstruction of the airways is possible, which can lead to suffocation.
  3. To independently remove a foreign body from the sinuses - this can lead to the fact that it will move and cause suffocation.

When bleeding from the nose, it is strictly forbidden to throw your head back and blow your nose - this can lead to even more blood loss

Helping a child with nosebleeds

Anterior nosebleeds stop almost immediately and almost independently. But still, some manipulations are required:

  • reassure the child, put him on a chair, and take the smallest in his arms,
  • unfasten clothes, try to let the child inhale through the nose, and exhale through the mouth,
  • legs should be warm
  • slightly tilt your head forward and hold your nostrils with your fingers,
  • throw your head back, but be sure to put cold on the bridge of the nose and insert the swab into the nose,
  • put cold on the back of my head
  • make a small swab of cotton wool or bandage, soak it in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide or in vasoconstrictive drops and insert it into the nostril,
  • if there is no hydrogen peroxide, instill vasoconstrictor drops in the nose - Galazolin, Naphthyzin, Rinazolin or 0.1% adrenaline solution,
  • if bleeding continues, then after 10-15 minutes you need to call an ambulance.

Once the bleeding stops, the swab cannot be pulled out sharply: this can damage the blood clot, and the blood will go again. It is best to moisten it with hydrogen peroxide, and then take it out.

Then, twice a day, lubricate the nasal mucosa with Vaseline (or Neomycin, Bacitracin ointment) to prevent it from drying out again and to promote better healing, which can last from 1 to 5 weeks.

With dry air in the apartment, especially during the heating season, the child is recommended to instill in his nose funds based on sea water - Salin or Aquamaris.

After stopping the bleeding of the child, it is necessary to show the ENT doctor to prevent repeated cases. He will examine the baby, if necessary - he will cauterize the bleeding area, and if necessary send it for a full examination to find out the reasons.

How to stop bleeding in a baby?

Infants may also have nosebleeds. In this case, the algorithm of actions during first aid is changed. The baby must be freed from squeezing clothes, which will provide access to oxygen.

Next, you need to take him in his arms while standing. The nose must be pressed a little and hold your fingers for 10 minutes. Overdoing in this case is not necessary, as this can lead to damage.

During the period of first aid, you need to ensure that the baby breathes through the mouth. You can also attach a towel to your nose, which is pre-wetted in cold water. Blood that flows out is removed with a sterile wipe.

Medications for the treatment of nosebleeds

One of the most effective treatment methods is drug therapy. The doctor prescribes drugs that help reduce fragility and permeability of capillaries:

  • Ascorutin (tablets), taken after meals,
  • Vitamin C,
  • Routine.

Additionally, the doctor may prescribe:

  • Dicinon - is used as a prophylaxis and to quickly stop bleeding. It can be used in the form of injections or tablets,
  • Aminocaproic acid - intravenously or in the form of drops,
  • Calcium Chloride and Calcium Gluconate - Intravenously,
  • Vikasol - used to enhance the action of other drugs, as well as to improve blood coagulation.

In case of severe bleeding that periodically recurs, the doctor may prescribe blood products:

  • platelet mass
  • freshly frozen plasma.

If the bleeding occurred due to an injury, the child is prescribed

How to stop nosebleeds: medication

With frequent nosebleeds, the child should be shown to the otolaryngologist.It, based on inspection and additional analyzes, will help determine the cause of the problem. Consultation with other specialists may be required, for example, cardiologist, neurologist, pediatrician.

After finding out the causes, treatment of nosebleeds in children begins immediately. It may include several groups of medicines:

  • Medicines can be prescribed that strengthen the walls of blood vessels, prevent their fragility and reduce permeability: Ascorbic acid, Ascorutin, Rutin.
  • For prevention, as well as for quick response to the situation, drugs can be prescribed: Dicinon in tablets or injections, Aminocaproic acid, Vikasol.
  • With bleeding due to injuries, such drugs as Trasilol, Contrical are prescribed.

A patient with heavy bleeding may be given Dicinon. It, in addition to hemostatic action, performs the function of strengthening blood vessels, reduces their permeability, improves blood microcirculation.

The daily dose of Dicinon is calculated from the body weight of the child - 10 mg / kg. For intravenous administration, the dosage is 12.5 mg per 1 kg. Children can use the solution for local treatment. A cotton swab is moistened with Dicinon solution and inserted into the nasal cavity.

With severe bleeding from the nose, intravenous administration of the drug Dicinon is indicated, since the action begins after 5 minutes and lasts for 6 hours.

Additionally, you may need the help of immunomodulators, vitamin complexes. The diet should include as many vegetables and fruits as possible.

Colds: rhinitis, SARS and others

An immunity that is not fully formed cannot protect a child from seasonal ailments. SARS, flu and other diseases of the nasopharynx are accompanied by the release of a large amount of fluid through the nose.

This usually causes a fever and cough. And the nose is constantly stuffy, which leads to severe damage to the mucosa, as well as constant attempts to blow your nose and get rid of interfering secretions.

It may happen that during a blow-out along with mucus, a blood clot comes out of the baby’s nose - this indicates a single rupture of capillaries, and as a rule bleeding does not occur in the future. Typically, blood clots form if the children's mucous membrane is regularly damaged during, for example, cleaning the nasal cavity of snot. Or from overdry.

Parents also often get nose drops for children with colds - vasoconstrictors, for example, make the course of the disease itself easier, but with prolonged use, they wound the thinned mucosa. From time to time, minor bleeding may occur due to this.

With bleeding, you can not:

  • blow your nose, this will displace the resulting clot, and the blood will go again,
  • to throw back his head, as blood will drain down the back of the throat, enter the stomach or clog the airways, in the first case, vomiting may occur, and in the second - suffocation,
  • if the cause of the bleeding is a foreign body, it cannot be taken out on its own, as it can shift and cause suffocation.

What can not be done?

When blood begins to flow from the nose of a child, parents in a panic try to help him and make mistakes.

It is strictly forbidden to lay the child on the bed and, especially, raise his legs, as this will lead to increased blood loss.

Tilting your head back is also prohibited, as this will lead to increased outflow of blood and increased secretions. It can also lead to cramping and vomiting.

After providing first aid, it is forbidden to give the child food or drink, especially when warm, as this will dilate blood vessels and lead to repeated bleeding. Physical activity after bleeding is contraindicated for the child, as this can lead to relapse.

Medicines for the treatment of nosebleeds - gallery

Asorutin (ascorbic acid and rutin) helps strengthen the walls of blood vessels, makes up for the lack of vitamin C Dicinon is used in medicine as an ambulance to stop bleeding Aminocaproic acid reduces capillary permeability, helps stop bleeding Calcium Chloride - a drug that can restore the lack of calcium in the body, which is necessary for the normal process of blood coagulation Vikasol contributes to the normalization of blood coagulation. Contrical is used for bleeding caused by injuries, as well as after surgery.

The dosage, frequency and duration of use of drugs, as well as the form of use, are prescribed only by the attending physician after a thorough examination of a small patient and finding out the cause of the pathology.

The use of drug treatment can improve the situation within 7-10 days.

If a conservative effect has not yielded results, the doctor may resort to other methods of treatment.

Clotting problems

Poor blood coagulation means that due to a violation in its structure, blood cells cease to participate in the coagulation process (lymphocytes, platelets, etc.). The process in which thromboplastin is formed can also be disrupted - clotting time increases, bleeding becomes plentiful, and a person can die.

Poor coagulability occurs most often with hemophilia and vascular defects (congenital or acquired), as well as leukemia and a decrease in platelet count.

Hemophilia can be hereditary - this type occurs only in boys.

It is accompanied by hematomas (especially in the joints), bleeding in the digestive tract, prolonged bleeding from the nose. Often it causes disability and incapacity, since it is impossible to completely cure the disease - only apply replacement therapy throughout life.

Vascular defects in a baby, and then an adult, are most often manifested through an increase in their permeability. Thus, any exposure to them, whether influenza or stress, causes severe bleeding. Blood flows from the nose in large quantities and it seems as if it could not be stopped.

Indications for calling an ambulance:

  • bleeding does not stop for 15-20 minutes,
  • a head injury occurred, after which the nose bleeds with a clear fluid (suspected fracture of the base of the skull),
  • intense bleeding, blood flows out, a clot does not form,
  • hemoptysis (back bleeding) or vomiting with blood (bleeding from the esophagus) is observed,
  • foamy blood (pulmonary hemorrhage),
  • in addition to bleeding, there is vomiting the color of coffee grounds, which indicates gastric bleeding,
  • a child (adolescent) often has high blood pressure,
  • a child whose nose runs out of blood suffers from diabetes,
  • the baby fainted
  • a small patient receives drugs that reduce blood coagulability - Aspirin, Indomethacin, Ibuprofen, Heparin, etc.,
  • the child has hemophilia or other diseases with a violation of the coagulation mechanism.

Preparations for the treatment of nosebleeds

If blood constantly flows from the nose, then this requires the use of certain medications. In order to reduce the fragility and permeability of capillaries, the use of:

How to cleanse the blood in the body

In order to accelerate the stop of bleeding, the use of Dietion or Vikasol is carried out. Also, the patient is recommended intravenous administration of aminocaproic acid, calcium chloride. If pathology occurs against the background of injuries, it is recommended to take Contrikal or Trasilol.

Preventative measures

To prevent nosebleeds, a number of preventive measures should be taken to help strengthen the vessels:

  • humidification of indoor air,
  • taking vitamin preparations
  • eating fresh vegetables, fruits, fish, dairy products, citrus fruits,
  • prevention of injuries to the nose and head,
  • avoid eating foods that can thin the blood: apples, tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries, currants,
  • taking drugs that can strengthen the child’s immunity and moisturize the nasal mucosa (especially in children who are prone to allergies and frequent colds).

The child should avoid heavy sports, as well as serious stress (especially after blood loss).

Tumor development

If the child’s nose bleeds often, then the reasons for this may lie in the formation of tumors - angiofibromas and hemangiomas. They require surgical intervention, since without it, the effect on the mucous membrane does not stop, blood flows from the nose constantly, which ultimately leads to anemia.

Tumors can be congenital and arise from blood vessels that underwent expansion - such a pathology is not uncommon for newborns (80 percent of all congenital tumors) and can rapidly progress in the first year of life. At the same time, nosebleeds in infants are a sign of complications, the appearance of tumor defects and additional infections.

Medical assistance

To stop intense epistaxis, an ENT doctor can take the following measures:

  • front or rear tamponade impregnated with 1% solution of feracryl, canned amnion, epsilon-aminocaproic acid,
  • remove a foreign body or polyps if they appear and cause nosebleeds,
  • the introduction of a swab with trichloroacetic acid or vagotil, which cauterize blood vessels, thus stopping bleeding,
  • coagulation (cauterization) of the bleeding area of ​​the mucosa in one of the following ways: laser, ultrasound, electric current, liquid nitrogen, silver nitrate, chromic acid,
  • use of a hemostatic sponge in the nasal cavity,
  • with heavy blood loss - transfusion of donated blood, freshly frozen plasma, intravenous administration of rheopolyglucin, hemodesis and aminocaproic acid,
  • if the measures taken are ineffective, surgical intervention is indicated - ligation or embolization (blockage) of large vessels that supply blood to the problem area of ​​the nasal mucosa,
  • endoscopic cryodestruction,
  • the introduction of sclerosing drugs, an oil solution of vitamin A,
  • the appointment of drugs that increase blood coagulation - calcium chloride, Vikasol, ascorbic acid, calcium gluconate.

With intense bleeding or massive blood loss, a child must be hospitalized in the ENT department.

After nosebleeds, children should not engage in sports for several days, as well as consume hot drinks or dishes. This causes a rush of blood and lymph to the head, which can again provoke bleeding.

How to stop folk remedies?

Often, to eliminate bleeding, traditional medicine is used, which are characterized not only by accessibility, but also by safety. To improve blood coagulability, it is recommended to take teas that are prepared on the basis of sea buckthorn, chamomile, and plantain.

If bleeding occurs constantly, then he needs to eat a piece of aloe leaf in the morning. If it becomes necessary to quickly stop the bleeding, moisten the gauze swab in the juice of plants such as plantain or nettle and insert into the nostrils for 5 minutes.

Leukemia

Blood cancer can occur at any age - this is a systemic disease that requires the use of chemotherapy and long-term treatment. Little girls suffer from it one and a half times more often than boys.

With leukemia in the bone marrow, cells that are incapable of fulfilling their “duties” arise - immature.Due to a malfunction of the bone marrow, platelet production decreases, and a deterioration in liver function leads to a deficiency of blood coagulation factors. Acute leukemia is always accompanied by bleeding - they occur in different locations, including in the nose.

Prevention

Prevention of nosebleeds should be based on the reasons that cause them. Common measures include:

  • the use of Ascorutin, which strengthens the walls of blood vessels,
  • good nutrition, the inclusion in the diet of vegetables, fruits, cereals, meat, fish, the use of foods rich in vitamins and minerals,
  • humidification, regular checking and cleaning of the air conditioner,
  • injury prevention
  • the use of drugs that help moisturize the nasal mucosa, especially in children suffering from frequent colds and allergies.

When do I need specialist help?

Most parents ask themselves: when should I contact a specialist? After the child stops bleeding from the nose, it is necessary to seek the help of a doctor. The specialist will determine the cause of the pathology, and also prescribe an effective treatment. if necessary, an ENT doctor will send the baby for further examination.

Nasal bleeding in children: causes and first aid

Nose bleed - The most common type of bleeding that occurs due to damage to the vascular walls in the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity.

It manifests itself with different intensities and is most often observed in children. This is due to age-related features: the mucous membrane in childhood is fragile, vulnerable, and it is very easy to injure it.

Usually the appearance of nosebleeds is associated with something harmless enough and obvious: the child picked his nose and scratched the mucous membrane with his fingernail, or hit when he fell, or blow his nose too hard with a bad cold.

But sometimes bleeding appears for no reason and does not stop for a long time, which indicates the presence of disorders in the body. We will talk about the causes of nosebleeds in children in the article.

Avitaminosis

Eating disorders can also cause the nose to bleed. With a lack of vitamins P and C, the vessels begin to thin and the capillaries become brittle.

Vitamin P (or rutin) can be obtained from nuts, buckwheat, tomato, citrus fruits and lettuce - if the child rarely consumes such foods, he may experience periodic nosebleeds. Antibiotics and the presence of worms also cause a lack of routine.

Vitamin C is rich in various citrus fruits.

Types of hemorrhage

Hemorrhages from the nose are divided into two types:

  1. Front With anterior hemorrhage, the walls of the vessels that are at the beginning of the nasal cavity are damaged. Blood flows from the nostrils, its flow is smooth. Gradually, the hemorrhage stops on its own and rarely carries a serious threat. The prevalence of anterior bleeding is high - more than 85% of nasal hemorrhages belong to this species.
  2. The back. If the walls of large vessels located in the back of the nose are injured, blood flows down the nasopharynx and does not flow out of the nostrils, therefore it is not always possible to detect it on time. Due to the fact that the vessels in the back of the nose are large, the back bleeding is intense and poses a serious threat to life and health. It is difficult to stop without medical intervention. It makes up 10-15% of all nasal hemorrhages.

In the front of the nose is the Kisselbach region, where a large number of small vessels are concentrated. Over 90% of anterior bleeding is caused by traumatic damage to this area.

Front hemorrhage is also divided into:

  • one-sided. Blood flows from one nostril
  • bilateral. Blood flows from two nostrils.

Epistaxis has four degrees of severity:

  1. Insignificant. Blood loss is scanty and is less than one hundred milliliters, does not carry a threat and stops on its own.

Easy. Blood loss less than 500 milliliters. It does not pose a serious threat, but if blood loss is 300-500 milliliters, children may complain of discomfort: dizziness, weakness. Stops on its own.

  1. Medium. Blood loss ranges from 500 to 1400 milliliters, blood from the nostrils flows actively, weakness, dizziness, fainting, and other symptoms are observed. Bleeding of such volume requires an urgent consultation with a pediatrician.
  2. Heavy. Blood loss is at least 1,400 milliliters. Bleeding does not stop, first aid methods are ineffective, the symptoms are severe. Emergency medical attention required.

What are the symptoms of leukemia in children? Find out about this from our article.

Which doctor to contact

For nosebleeds that do not stop for 15 minutes, you need to call an ambulance, which most often after first aid transports the child to a surgical hospital, where he is examined by an ENT doctor. If the bleeding is regular, you need to contact a pediatrician and systematically examine the child with the connection of the necessary specialized specialists: hematologist, neurologist, rheumatologist, endocrinologist, oncologist, infectious disease specialist, cardiologist, hepatologist.

Hemorrhagic diathesis

A common symptom for diathesis of various forms is increased bleeding - prolonged and intense bleeding from the nose and other places occurs.

This condition is very dangerous because it can lead to anemia. And also it is accompanied by cerebral hemorrhages. You can learn more about this pathology from this article.

Reasons and factors

Hemorrhage from the nose develops under the influence of both external and internal adverse factors.

  1. Low humidity. If the air is too dry, the mucous membrane is dried out, and the vascular walls weaken, and bleeding may begin due to minor effects (coughing, picking your nose, sneezing).
  2. Heatstroke. When overheated, the vessels expand extensively and burst.
  3. Mechanical injury. It includes bruises, finger picking, inaccurate exposure to a cotton swab when mucus is removed in infants, severe blowing of the nose, ingestion of a foreign body.
  4. The effects of medication. Excessive use of vasoconstrictor, antiallergenic and antiviral agents leads to desiccation of the mucous membrane.

Narcotic drugs. Actual for older children: exposure to glue, cocaine weakens the mucous membrane, it is easily injured and bleeds.

  1. The consequences of injuries. An improperly healed fracture or curvature of the septum increases the risk of bleeding.

  1. Diseases that are accompanied by swelling of the mucosa: SARS, sinusitis, flu, sinusitis and others.
  2. Failures in blood coagulation mechanisms. These mechanisms can be disturbed for various reasons: leukemia, hormonal disruptions, hemophilia, an excess of vitamin C, prolonged use of drugs that reduce platelet count.
  3. Chronic diseases They have a devastating effect on the immune system, on coagulability and vascular tone, the child is often sick, and his mucous membrane is vulnerable.
  4. Neoplasms malignant or benign type in the nasal cavity.
  5. Congenital disorders of the structure of the nose and vascular structure. These include congenital septum curvature, vasodilation.
  6. Hypertonic disease. A sharp jump in pressure provokes a rupture of the vascular wall.

Bleeding also occurs with mental or physical exhaustion, migraines, vitamin deficiency, stressful situations.

First aid

How to stop the blood? For nosebleeds should:

  1. reassure the child if he is scared
  2. place it so that the head is upright,
  3. lower your head a little down and put a container for blood
  4. unfasten the upper buttons and remove anything that may disturb breathing (necklace, tie),
  5. apply something cold to the nose (wet handkerchief, ice),
  6. ask to hold the wings of the nostrils with your fingertips (or do it yourself) and wait ten minutes,
  7. if this method did not help for the specified time, you need to introduce cotton wool moistened with 3% hydrogen peroxide into the nasal cavity (it can be replaced with drops for the nose with a vasoconstrictor effect).

If the cause of bleeding is a foreign body, you should take the child to the hospital. Trying to pull it out yourself is dangerous: due to improper exposure, it can go deeper and block breathing.

So that the child does not worry, and time passes faster (it is difficult for a small child to sit idle in one place), you can turn on cartoons and read a book aloud. In this case, you need to ask him move less and talkso that bleeding does not intensify.

First Aid Errors:

  1. Throwing back the head. If the head is thrown back, blood stops flowing out of the nostrils, but flows into the nasopharynx and enters the esophagus, which can lead to nausea and bloody vomiting. Also, this method does not make it possible to assess the level of blood loss and the duration of hemorrhage.

Horizontal position. The principle here is the same as in the previous paragraph: blood flows into the esophagus, causing vomiting and nausea.

  1. Dry cotton. A cotton swab, not moistened with peroxide or drops, dries to the walls with a long stay in the nose, and clotted blood sticks to it, and when removed there is a risk of renewed bleeding.

At night

At night, blood from the nose of a child may flow due to:

  1. Reception of vasoconstrictors (for example, Otrivina) during acute respiratory viral infections and colds.
  2. Drying of the mucosa - during the heating season, in dry rooms, due to illness or medication.
  3. Physical injuries in the head and nose.
  4. Allergies with different (home) pathogens.

Nighttime nosebleeds are considered the most dangerous.

When is it necessary to call a doctor?

Ambulance must be called in the following cases:

  • the bleeding could not be stopped in 15-20 minutes, and all necessary measures were taken,
  • bilateral and severe hemorrhage,
  • bleeding is accompanied by additional hemorrhages (from the auricle or genitals),
  • during hemorrhage, the child complains of pain, dizziness, faints,
  • blood has a bright scarlet or very dark color.

If the bleeding was stopped, there is no reason to call an emergency, but it may be required to see a doctor. This must be done if at least one item matches:

  • frequent hemorrhages,
  • the blood cannot be stopped for a long time,
  • the child is weakened, complains of headaches and dizziness, gets tired faster,
  • bleeding occurs for no apparent reason
  • Bruises easily appear on the child’s skin, scratches and wounds do not heal for a long time.

Frequent nosebleeds indicate the presence of various violations, which may include heart disease and other internal organs, blood diseases, tumor processes, vitamin deficiencies.

Single night bleeding, which easily stopped, does not require specialist treatment, but frequent nightly hemorrhages are a cause for concern and also indicate the presence of violations.

In the morning

In the morning, immediately after the child has woken up, his nose may bleed due to:

  • Polyps in the nose.
  • Dry air in the room - dry mucosa is more susceptible to injury.
  • That the child or teenager spent too active or a long evening - the regime was violated, there was no good rest.
  • That the child was nervous.
  • Long-term load on the vessels in an unusual lying position - on the side or abdomen (typical for a month old or first years of life).

Why can nosebleeds often appear?

Frequent nosebleeds occur due to pathologies or chronic conditions of the child's body. It can become one of the “first bells” to diagnose anemia or other diseases of the circulatory system.

In older childhood, it is also a sign of serious psychophysical stress and strain.

The greatest danger is regular bleeding when the blood is thick or scarlet - they may indicate the presence of oncology in the nasal cavity or its sinuses.

Treatment

If a disorder that causes bleeding is detected, treatment is aimed at eliminating it.

To stop heavy bleeding The following methods are applied:

  • the introduction of a swab with feracryl, thrombin, amnion,
  • artery ligation
  • prolonged tamponade of the nasal cavity (within 1-2 days).

To reduce the frequency of bleeding, are prescribed mucosal ointments (petrolatum, neomycin) and medications that improve the coagulation process (Vikasol, vitamin C, hemophobin).

If these methods are not effective, cauterization of the nasal septum using silver nitrate is performed.

How to distinguish serious pathologies in time?

Serious diseases necessarily have additional symptoms - blood from the nose is only one of the first signs of pathology.

Do not hesitate to check with your doctor if the child:

  • Frequent bleeding and he complains or shows constant discomfort.
  • Bleeding did not come from one nostril, but from two at once.
  • There is blood in another place - from the ear, anus, etc.
  • Blood goes every day.

Moms should not panic if blood appears from the nose during seasonal illnesses - with acute respiratory viral infections or colds, a small discharge of blood only indicates the severity of mucosal damage due to the disease. This will pass when the underlying disease is cured.

Tips Komarovsky

  • Dr. Komarovsky not recommend throw your head back when bleeding, inject cotton into the nasal cavity and lay the child horizontally.
  • In his opinion, the child should be placed so that his head is lowered, and his back is tilted forward, and asked to pinch his nose with his fingers for ten minutes.
  • He also recommends not only applying cold to the nose, but also giving the child to eat or drink something cold (ice cream, ice water through a tube).
  • He believes that frequent nosebleeds are an anatomical feature and most often occur due to colds and dry air.

What can not be done in any case?

First aid is often only harmful, so if you find bleeding from the nose in a child, you can not do the following:

  1. Throw back the baby’s head - blood will flow into the throat and it will become impossible to determine whether the bleeding has stopped. It can also cause a gag reflex in a child.
  2. To “plug” the nostrils with tampons - with further extraction of the cotton, the baked crust will come off and everything will start anew.
  3. Lay the baby down.
  4. Periodically release the child’s nostrils before the desired amount of time has elapsed.
  5. Send baby blow your nose.
  6. Allow the child to talk or cough.
  7. Allow the child to swallow blood.
  8. Allow the child to move - especially, actively.
  9. Keep cold for too long on nose bridge.
  10. Move the child abruptly.
  11. Allow the child to pick his nose.
  12. After stopping the bleeding, give him food or drink hotter.

Dr. Komarovsky on why a child’s nose bleeds

Many parents have experienced nosebleeds in their children, but not everyone knows why nosebleeds often flow in childhood, and how to deal with a similar problem.Let's find out the opinion of Dr. Komarovsky and his advice for parents with nosebleeds in children.

A well-known pediatrician calls the anatomical features of the structure of the nasal mucosa the main cause of frequent bleeding in children. They determine the occurrence of frequent bleeding in some children and the absence of such a problem in other babies. Among the most common triggering factors, Komarovsky calls dry air in the room in which the child is.

According to a popular doctor, because of the dry air, the mucus in the baby’s nose dries out and forms crusts, and when the baby picks them up, bleeding opens.

In this case, Komarovsky emphasizes, we are talking about bleeding that is not caused by trauma (fall, shock), when the reason for the discharge of blood from the baby’s nose is obvious. Excessively dry air causes bleeding that appears suddenly, for no apparent reason.

Increased mucus production in the baby’s nose is caused by a viral infection, exposure to an allergen or bacteria, and mucus drying out can be caused not only by dry air in the room, but also by taking certain medications (vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory, antihistamines, etc.), prolonged increase in body temperature, inhalation of contaminated air.

The bleeding itself can begin not only when picking in the nose, but also when sneezing, during a walk, during inhalation or during sleep - in all cases when the pressure on the nasal septum increases.

However, the cause of blood from the nose of a child can be much more serious, however, as Komarovsky notes, problems with blood coagulation, liver, blood pressure and other serious diseases will never be manifested only by nosebleeds. If the baby has any such illness, he will also have other symptoms, for example, a skin rash, frequent bruising, headaches or dizziness.

When a child begins nosebleeds, Komarovsky recommends acting as follows:

  1. Set the baby with the body tilted forward. The child's head should be straight or slightly inclined forward.
  2. The nostrils of the child should be squeezed with fingers and hold for about 10 minutes. Mom can compress the nose or the child himself. While waiting, the child should breathe through the mouth.

According to a popular doctor, the diameter of a vessel that is damaged primarily affects the rate of cessation of blood flow. Also, the duration of bleeding will be determined by the state of the blood coagulation system and by taking certain medications. In most cases, ten minutes will be enough to stop normal nosebleeds.

To speed up the stopping of bleeding, a popular doctor recommends a cold, but only if the child can pinch her nose on her own (while mom runs into the kitchen for something cold).

You can also give your child ice cream or a cold drink through a tube, as the cold in the oral cavity also helps to more quickly stop bleeding in the nose.

In addition, so that 10 minutes of waiting until the blood stops flowing, become too long for the child, parents can entertain him with something, for example, turn on the cartoon for the child, read to the baby or tell him a story.

The main mistakes of parents in assisting a child with nosebleed are known pediatrician calls:

  1. Throwing the baby's head back. With this action, the blood will drain into the throat, so it will be difficult to understand how severe the damage to the vessels is, when the bleeding stopped and whether it ended at all. In addition, flowing blood can provoke a gag reflex.
  2. Introduction to the nasal passages of cotton swabs. After extracting cotton from the nose, the crust formed at the site of vascular damage is removed, which causes repeated bleeding.
  3. Putting the child to bed. Komarovsky focuses parents on the fact that a child with nosebleeds should not be in a horizontal position.
  4. Release the baby’s nostrils earlier, checking to see if more blood is flowing. This will only interfere with the cessation of bleeding.

Also, a child during bleeding should not:

  • Blow your nose
  • Cough.
  • Speak.
  • Swallow blood.
  • Actively move.

If 10 minutes have passed, the mother released her nostrils, and the bleeding is still ongoing, all actions should be repeated for another 10 minutes. If twenty minutes after the onset of nosebleeds it has not stopped, the child should be shown to a doctor.

Komarovsky also advises not to hesitate in seeking medical help if:

  • Blood in a child is released immediately from two nostrils.
  • The child still had bleeding from another part of the body, for example, from the ear.
  • Bleeding from the nose is repeated very often.

In the following video, the doctor gives detailed recommendations in helping with nosebleeds in a child, and also talks about the frequent mistakes of parents in such situations.

In all these cases, a well-known pediatrician advises to pinch your nostrils and call an ambulance, or put the child in a car in order to quickly take him to a medical facility.

So that the child does not have frequent nosebleeds of a non-traumatic nature, Komarovsky recommends:

  • Humidify the air and remove dust accumulators from the room so that the mucus in the nose does not dry out.
  • Give your child a lot to drink.
  • If the baby already had nosebleeds, do not use drugs that can dry the mucous membrane in the treatment.
  • Do not allow the child to pick his nose.
  • Moisturize the mucosa with saline or oily solutions of vitamins E and A.
  • Take a blood test regularly.
  • Do not allow the child to strain for a week after nosebleeds.

Blood from the nose in children - the causes of pathology and the correct actions of adults

Epistaxis often causes excitement. The problem is known to otolaryngologists under the name "epistaxis". Most often, it is observed from 3 years of age to adolescence.

In order to effectively eliminate this phenomenon, to avoid unwanted problems, it is necessary to have complete information about why the nose comes from the nose in children, as well as about proven treatment methods.

Drugs and medicines

If the capillaries in the child have weakened and become brittle, tablets are used:

According to doctors, they are most effective for prevention or if the child suffers from chronic vascular pathologies.

  • Hemostatic sponge.
  • Intravenous injection of calcium chloride.
  • Vikasol.
  • Dicinon (used after surgery).

The dosage and method of use of these drugs should be determined by the doctor.

Folk ways

Folk recipes that help with nosebleeds:

  • Teas that increase the viscosity and blood coagulation are chamomile or sea buckthorn. You can drink them, or treat the mucous membrane with a swab moistened in them.
  • You can squeeze a few drops of lemon or yarrow juice into your nose, after rubbing it in your fingers.
  • You can put a lotion with the juice of plantain (or nettle) inside the nostrils - the plant is crushed, and liquid is squeezed out of it.

You can smear the mucous with plant-based creams, or made manually from chamomile or nettle - this will help moisturize it if the child is in a dry room.

When cleaning the nose of mucus and secretions (with SARS, for example), it is better to treat it with light solutions of chamomile and sea buckthorn, and avoid chemical solutions that can damage the mucosa.

A child often has nosebleeds: reasons for what to do

Many parents are faced with a situation where a child often has nosebleeds. In many cases, this condition is due to anatomical features. Under the thin mucous membrane of the sinuses there is a large number of small blood vessels that are easily damaged.

Epistaxis in children (epistaxis) is a fairly common occurrence. Children, by their nature, are very mobile and curious, the risk of getting minor injuries is several times higher than that of adults. But regular bleeding can also be the first sign of serious pathologies that require medical attention and timely treatment.

Methods for differential diagnosis of causes

Initial diagnosis of the causes is carried out using:

  • External examination, study of influence factors and patient's history.
  • Internal examination of the nose, nasopharynx and pharynx.
  • General blood test.

To identify pathologies, examinations by narrow specialists may be needed.

If you suspect a specific disease, the following methods are used:

  • X-ray of the nose, MRI, examination by ENT - this is how polyps and diseases of the nasopharynx are detected.
  • Examination by an allergist, tests for allergens, a detailed blood test for immunoglobulins - this is how an allergic reaction is detected.
  • Admission to a hematologist, blood clotting tests for suspected violations in this area.
  • Inspection by an endocrinologist, followed by testing for hormones, if general hormonal disorders are possible.
  • Oncologist examination, blood biochemistry or puncture of the brain with suspected leukemia and other oncological diseases.
  • Blood donation for lack of vitamins if vitamin deficiency is suspected.
  • Blood pressure test (daily) and kidney test (urine and blood tests, ultrasound) to detect hypertension.

A child often has nosebleeds - types of bleeding

If nosebleeds in a child occur no more often than once every 2-3 months - there are no special reasons for excitement. You need to worry when bleeding occurs frequently, for no apparent reason and does not stop for a long time.

Many parents begin to panic when they notice small traces of blood in the form of thin threads in the mucus secreted from the nose. This is not scary, as small capillaries can be damaged by intensive blowing, or during sneezing.

If the baby’s nose comes from the nose at night, then in the mornings there are traces of blood on the bedding or bedding, and the inside of the nose is covered with a blood crust. There are two types of bleeding:

  • Anterior bleeding - occurs in the superficial layers of the front of the nose due to minor vascular damage. Usually weak, quickly stops by itself. It does not cause much harm to the body, but it can cause psychological trauma in a child, especially if he is frightened by the sight of blood.
  • Back bleeding - occurs less frequently, it is more intense, may be accompanied by pain. Blood itself does not stop, it can flow out from both nostrils, while a certain amount flows into the nasopharynx, which explains its appearance in saliva. Such bleeding is more dangerous and requires the adoption of emergency measures aimed at stopping it and preventing the flow of blood into the respiratory tract.

Epistaxis is dangerous because even small wounds on the nasal mucosa facilitate the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the tissues. Infections are the main cause of chronic inflammation of the nasopharynx, leading to serious complications.

The main causes of nosebleeds:

  • Bacterial and viral infections - in this case there are foci of inflammation that destroy the thin mucous membrane. The capillaries are located close to the edge, and even a runny nose can lead to their rupture, causing the appearance of blood.
  • Injuries to the nose - often the babies themselves damage the mucous membrane when picking in the nose, or are injured during games or falling. For this reason, nosebleed is often observed in children at 4 years of age and older, since during this period the kids are as active as possible.
  • Lack of moisture in the air - causes the mucous membrane to dry out, which is easily injured, causing bleeding.
  • High blood pressure leads to rupture of capillaries, but in children this condition is rare.
  • Sunstroke or thermal overheating - cause spasms of blood vessels, with the expansion of which bleeding begins.
  • Use of nasal drops with vasoconstrictor properties. With the frequent use of such drugs, blood vessels lose their elasticity, atrophy and are easily injured.
  • The occurrence of swelling due to an allergic reaction. In allergic rhinitis (runny nose), even sneezing can provoke a rupture of small capillaries in the nose and cause bleeding.
  • Curvature of the nasal septum - mucus lingers in the sinuses, causing inflammation, due to which the walls of the vessels loosen and begin to bleed.

Also possible causes of nosebleeds:

  • Hormonal failure - occurs during the restructuring of the body during adolescence.
  • Excessive physical exertion - lead to excessive filling of the nasal vessels with blood, causing them to rupture.
  • Poor blood coagulability - observed with hemophilia (a hereditary disease). Even minor external influences can provoke severe bleeding, which is very difficult to stop.

  • The presence of a foreign body. During the game, young children can stick a small part of the toy into their nose. A solid object injures the delicate mucosa, and attempts to extract it yourself only exacerbate the situation, causing rupture of blood vessels. These injuries mainly cause nosebleed in children 2 years old.
  • Chemical burn - occurs when inhaling the fumes of ammonia and chlorine, which are part of household chemicals.
  • Children's neurosis, symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia are expressed by psychological discomfort, which can be manifested by increased moodiness, trembling hands and nosebleeds.

Blood from the nose of a child at 5 years old can go spontaneously, regardless of the time of day. Tissues and blood vessels have not yet become stronger, the nasal passages are very narrow, and the walls are loose. Any careless movement can damage them.

Blood from the nose of a child at 3 years old is a frequent occurrence. May occur due to overwork or overheating.

Since children at this age are very mobile, but still not firmly on their legs, there is a risk of frequent injuries caused by falls.

The cause of frequent bleeding can be a pathology of the development of the nasal septum, which will lead to inflammatory processes. In this case, the child will be lethargic, breathing is difficult.

There are a number of dangerous diseases that can manifest themselves through nosebleeds:

  • severe anemia
  • systemic lupus erythematosus,
  • vasculitis
  • hemophilia,
  • leukemia and leukemia,
  • liver damage (hepatitis, cirrhosis),
  • nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Pediatricians name a number of reasons that contribute to nosebleeds.

This is a predisposition to bleeding at the genetic level, infection with Staphylococcus aureus and attempts to remove shriveled mucus from the sinuses.

Also, the cause of nosebleeds can be a lack of vitamins and minerals in the body. Therefore, it is so important that the child ate more fresh vegetables and fruits.

Symptoms of Epistaxis

Before bleeding in children, the following manifestations may occur:

  • Strong headache,
  • dizziness,
  • muscle weakness
  • noise in ears,
  • tickling sensations in the nasopharynx,
  • pallor of the skin,
  • change in heart rate.

One or several symptoms may appear that cannot be ignored.

It is extremely important to determine the reason why blood flows from the nose of a child, as some conditions can pose a serious threat to health.

Severe bleeding, accompanied by the appearance of a clear, foamy fluid, can be a sign of damage to the cranial vault, which requires emergency medical attention.

What to do - necessary actions

If the baby's nose goes bleeding, parents need to quickly provide first aid. It is necessary to reassure the child, because additional stress during crying will only aggravate the situation.After that, you can take measures to stop the bleeding.

The child started bleeding from the nose - what to do:

  1. Release the child from tightening clothes or unfasten them, providing free access to air.
  2. Put the baby on a hard surface and hold his head in a lowered position. Do not raise your head up, as in this case, blood can flow into the throat and provoke vomiting.
  3. Clamp the nose with two fingers for ten minutes, and the pressure should not be too strong so as not to damage it.
  4. Make sure that the baby breathes with his mouth, taking deep breaths and exhalations.
  5. Carefully soak the leaking blood with a sterile cloth so that the child is not afraid of the sight of blood.
  6. Apply a towel moistened with cold water or dry ice wrapped in a clean cloth to your nose.

Exposure to cold should not be long, as a runny nose or sinus inflammation may begin. All these measures are effective in cases of mild blood secretion. After the bleeding has stopped, you can not let your child actively move, overexert, and blow your nose too much, as this can provoke a relapse.

You can not throw your head up, blood can enter the stomach through the esophagus, causing attacks of nausea and vomiting. When lying down, there is a high probability of increased cough, which will only worsen well-being and lead to the development of complications, which then will be difficult to eliminate.

It is best to lubricate the internal mucosa with a softening agent after stopping the bleeding, using cotton buds to prevent it from drying out. For the same purpose, you can irrigate the nasal passages with Aquamaris, Salin. During the heating season, the air in the room must be moistened to prevent the mucous membrane from drying out.

If it was not possible to stop the blood immediately, you can insert tampons treated with hydrogen peroxide or Nazivin into the nostrils. You can also use vasoconstrictive sprays, such as Tizin, Otrivin, Galazolin. After that, once again squeeze the wings of the nose, if these measures did not help, you need to seek medical help.

Causes of the sudden appearance of blood from the nose in a child

Every person knows that if you hit your nose, blood will flow. Who wants to experience this? To nobody.

Unfortunately, parents often notice scarlet spots on their pillow or clothes in their children, realizing that no one beat them. Some fall into a panic, thinking that the beloved child fell ill with a deadly disease. In fact, the baby’s nosebleed and the reasons behind it are not always threatening.

When to worry is not worth it

Quite often, nosebleeds in a child occur for no apparent reason. In medicine, this phenomenon is called - epistaxis. It has a direct relationship with the delivery of blood to the nasal mucosa. Since in children under 7 years of age it is too tender and the vessels are fragile, they may encounter such a problem.

If bleeding occurred once, it was short-lived and quickly stopped, you should not worry. But, when the child often complains of scarlet fluid from the nose, you should seek help.

To make smart decisions in unexpected situations, parents should know why the baby is bleeding from the nose. Here are some of the causes of the problem:

When an unexpected blow occurs in this part of the face, its delicate mucosa does not withstand. As a result of damage to the capillaries, a small amount of liquid comes out. Mobile children under 5 years old often fall, getting injuries on their faces.

Note to parents.

Only a specialist can determine the severity of an injury on the face. After this, you should contact the ENT for further treatment.

Smaller children, cleansing the organ of dried crusts, affect it with sharp nails. Sometimes they can stick small objects into it, after removing which, a blood trail may appear.

  1. Hysterical crying or tantrum.

When a one-year-old baby cries hysterically for a long time, his vascular pressure increases. As a result, blood vessels burst in the nose. The weakest point in the organ is the plexus of Kisselbach.

Kisselbach Plexus (click to view)

  1. Excessive activity during games.

Although it is very helpful for children to move, excessive activity leads to overwork. The body reacts to this with nosebleeds. If the baby is less than 4 years old, parents should control his leisure.

Long exposure of the baby in the sun leads to overheating. As a result, blood flows from the nose at night when the body is in a calm state. In this situation, it is advisable for parents to be around to help a sleepy baby.

This problem occurs in the winter, if the child is in the cold for a long time.

When heating is turned on during the cold season, the air in the room becomes dry. If the child has sensitive and weak vessels, they will certainly respond to this. A small amount of blood will indicate their condition, which will serve as a signal for the mother.

A sharp change in climate for the baby can be expressed in the fact that he will have epistaxis. A trip from the northern part of the country to the south will lead to the fact that his nose will run blood. Even after returning from the sea, the situation may not change.

  1. Sudden pressure drops.

During an air flight, children experience overload. Since their mucous membranes are still very tender, pressure drops provoke their destruction.

Often parents, wanting to make their child happy, lead him on a swing. Unfortunately, in children with weak vessels, blood can flow from the nose after skating. In view of this, it is advisable to control the amount of such entertainment.

Sometimes the baby can hardly endure a trip to the mountains. Sudden pressure drops affect the nasal capillaries, destroying them. Therefore, choosing a way to relax, it is important for parents to think not only about themselves.

The above factors, in general, are not harmful to the health of little men. After all, a small amount of scarlet fluid from the nose appears for a short time, and then disappears.

When blood is a signal of trouble

The question of why a child often has nosebleeds arises in parents when they do not see the obvious reason for this phenomenon. Indeed, the root of the problem is often hidden within the body.

One of the most common causes of scarlet fluid from the nose is all kinds of infections. Children under 6 years old are prone to colds. They, in turn, are associated with this part of the body.

Edema or inflammation of the inner lining of the organ leads to vascular tension. If they are brittle, the appearance of blood is inevitable. The situation is aggravated by high body temperature, which causes general weakness of the body.

Therefore, the baby can suffer from night bleeding from the facial organ.

When children get a runny nose, from a cold or allergies, they often sneeze. Weak capillaries on the mucosa inside the nose do not stand up and burst.

In addition, some drugs affect the vascular strength inside this organ.

When blood often flows from the nose of a child, the root of the problem lies in the pathological development of the organ. Narrowing of the nasal passages can appear through a serious injury that a person received. If such cases were not observed, then this is a congenital pathology.

Studies show that a lack of vitamins in children at the beginning of spring leads to the appearance of blood from the nose.

It is important for mothers to know.

Despite the fact that in winter there is little vitamin, efforts should be made so that the child's nutrition is balanced. Do not neglect simple vegetables rich in vitamins.

Psychological disorders are also the reason why the baby is bleeding from the nose. If a little man is locked in and worries about something, it ends in bleeding. To help him cope with negative emotions, it is advisable to constantly communicate with him.Only close friendship will help to identify a real threat to the health of the child.

Help for parents in an emergency

Everyone knows that children have a fear of blood. It especially manifests itself when it flows with them. In view of this, it is important to defuse the situation.

At the sight of blood in the baby, parents should not loudly utter various exclamations. He is already scared by the appearance of a scarlet liquid. Instead, it is better to put the baby on a level place. If this is not possible, you can put him on a chair.

Some people think that you need to throw your head back. In fact, such a pose will exacerbate the problem. Blood fluid will flow into the esophagus or respiratory tract, which is very dangerous.

When he sits down, let him slightly bend his head forward, and cover his nose with cotton or tampons. This will allow the fluid to stop. Later, blood clots should be carefully removed from the nose.

If the blood does not clot for a long time, it is advisable to put cold on the bridge of the nose. In case of serious problems, it is worth calling a doctor for help.

After a thorough examination, the doctor will prescribe a treatment that will help strengthen the blood vessels. Vitamin preparations are usually prescribed. If necessary, he can make cauterization of capillaries.

Be that as it may, blood from the nose is a serious signal from the body. And, if we love our children, then we don’t follow the emotions, but we solve problems seriously.

Blood from the nose of a child: causes, symptoms and emergency measures

At least once in a lifetime, “causeless” nosebleeds happen to everyone. It often happens that in children “for no reason,” blood begins to flow through the nose. Nevertheless, there are very specific reasons for this phenomenon. And if you notice a “tendency” to nosebleeds for your baby, you should immediately organize a trip to the pediatrician. Why and why - tell!

From time to time, not only in adults, but also in children, nosebleeds occur for no apparent reason - the baby did not fight and did not hit, and yet the child bleeds from his nose ... At first glance - nothing serious. But it is important for parents to know that in some cases the cause of this phenomenon may be the development of a serious and dangerous disease.

Epistaxis may vary

There may be two types of nosebleeds in a child:

  • bleeding from the front of the nasopharynx (in this case, damage to the vessel, which is located directly on the nasal septum),
  • bleeding from the back of the nose (often happens with trauma, with high blood pressure or against the background of the development of some serious diseases).

In the winter season, nosebleeds in children occur many times more often than in the warm season.

As a rule, in children more often nosebleeds from the front of the nose occur. A distinctive feature of this type is that blood comes from only one nostril. And with this option, the blood in most cases quickly stops.

When damage to the vessel is located in the back of the nose, blood usually comes from both nostrils, the bleeding is very intense and difficult to stop.

But whatever the bleeding, it is in any case necessary to try to stop it in the shortest possible time. Fortunately, manipulations for this do not require any special efforts and tricks on the part of the parents.

How to stop nosebleeds: first aid for a child

  • 1 Sit the child down - the back is straight, the body is slightly inclined forward, the head is slightly lowered.
  • 2 Gently squeeze the wings of the baby’s nose with your fingers (in other words, squeeze the nose),
  • 3 Hold this position for at least 10 minutes (and use your entire parental will not to look into the child’s nose every 30 seconds, checking that it is still flowing, or has already stopped). It is very important to pinch your nose and hold on in this position for at least 10 minutes.
  • 4 While holding your nose in place for 10 minutes, it’s useful to add ice cubes or something cold to your nose.In addition, something cold (ice cream, a glass of ice water through a tube, etc.) is useful to give your child to eat or drink. Cold in the mouth effectively stops nosebleeds.

Unfortunately, practice shows that most mothers and fathers, faced with a problem such as sudden nosebleeds in their child, get lost and make a number of mistakes.

Mistakes made by adults, providing emergency care for children with nosebleeds:

  • 1 Do not throw the child’s head back, because in this case blood will not flow out of the nose, but will flow along the back wall of the nasopharynx. In this situation, you cannot determine whether the bleeding has stopped or not, how intense it is, and in addition, you cannot be sure that the baby will not choke (if there is a lot of blood),
  • 2 Do not stuff cotton wool, tampons, or other “plugs” into the baby’s nose. Instead of freely flowing out, the blood will infiltrate cotton and thicken, gradually drying up to the nasal mucosa. Once you pull out the bloody swabs, bleeding may begin again.
  • 3 The child should not be placed in a lying position - if the bleeding is strong, it will end with bloody vomiting, which when lying down almost always leads to choking. It is best to seat the child directly by tilting his body slightly forward.
  • 4 With nosebleeds, it is not necessary to provoke the child to talk or to move - both will increase bleeding.

When is it necessary to call a doctor for nosebleeds?

Despite the fact that nosebleeds are usually not a very serious and easily fixable incident, there are situations when it is vital to show the child to the doctor. Such situations include the following circumstances:

  • If after ten minutes the bleeding has not stopped, we repeat the entire procedure from the beginning (for another 10 minutes). If in this case (after a total of 20 minutes from the beginning of first aid) the nose is still bleeding - this is an absolute reason to urgently call a doctor.
  • If the nosebleeds in a child are intense and occur simultaneously from two nostrils.
  • If nosebleeds are accompanied by some other bleeding (blood comes from the ear, or from the genitals, etc.).
  • Be sure to show the child a doctor if nosebleeds have become regular (every day, every 2-3 days, once a week, etc.).

The need for medical advice in such circumstances is completely justified, because in rare cases, nosebleeds can be not just the result of a bursting vessel in the nose, but a symptom of a dangerous disease.

Causes of Sudden Nosebleed

Finally, it's time to find out why in adults and children in general there is such a thing as nosebleeds. In 90% of cases, nosebleeds occur because vessels in the anterior sections of the nose burst. This is facilitated by:

  • Drying of the nasal mucosa,
  • Dust, tobacco smoke, animal hair - all this causes increased mucus formation in the nose and fragility of blood vessels on the nasal septum,
  • Very dry and hot air in the room where the child lives,
  • Excessive physical stress
  • Severe stress.

But the reasons can also be many times more serious and dangerous. For instance:

  • Trauma to internal organs,
  • Clotting disorders
  • Circulatory disorders,
  • Liver disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system,

If you contact a pediatrician on one of the grounds that were mentioned above as reasons for attracting professional medical care for nosebleeds in a child, the doctor will definitely prescribe tests and studies that will help exclude (or sometimes, alas, confirm) the presence of the child one of these diseases.

Watch the video: Epistaxis nosebleed; Causes and Management (March 2020).